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Apple juices: How to increase the polyphenol diet while keeping the taste quality for consumers?

Abstract : Apple polyphenols are considered to have protective effects against different diseases and especially against cardiovascular diseases. A recent dose-response meta-analysis showed that the risk of coronary heart disease mortality is reduced by 25% for people consuming 200 mg/day of flavonoids [1]. However, increasing polyphenols in food may also enhance bitterness and astringency (2) that might result in low acceptability. Especially, limiting the losses during processing or adding polyphenols extracted from vegetables by-products often enhance this detrimental effect because these process usually increase high polymerized procyanidins content. Another way is to use bitter apple having naturally high polyphenol content and to accept mash oxidation and maceration that lead to a selective loss of those high-polymerized procyanidins (3). Comparing the detailed polyphenol composition of most of commercial juices with experimental juices made from French cider apple, we showed that the experimental juices could be ten time higher than the mean commercial juices. When produced under anaerobic conditions the juices of bitter varieties were rejected due to their astringency but when produced by an oxidative process, acceptance clearly increased to reach mean scores. However the taste was often considered “unusual” probably due to bitterness and low acidity. Juices containing more than 5 g/L of polyphenols could be considered as extremes but cider apples can also be used to produce realistic juices by mixing with more conventional apple juices. A wide range of polyphenol content and acidity was obtained by mixing the juices of three contrasted varieties (acidic, bitter and a bitter-sweet). Ten juices, defined by a mixing design, were then tested for their acceptability by French consumers. The results showed that juices up to 2.5 g/L of total polyphenols (ic 1.3 g/L of flavonoids) ranged among the preferred juices and scored as high as acidic juices that are close to classical commercial juices. Moreover, as pale juices are preferred in a many countries, consumers were also asked about juices colour. For a large majority of them the orange/yellow colour due to polyphenols oxidation was well accepted by French consumers. Given the total polyphenol content of these preferred juices, one serving of 200 ml per day could be enough to ensure 200 mg/day of flavonoids that can be considered as an active intake (reducing mortality). At this level the sugar intake remains acceptable for most consumers.
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Contributor : Sylvain Guyot <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, August 25, 2021 - 3:58:52 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, September 8, 2021 - 3:04:57 AM


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Claudia Mariana Castillo Fraire, Jean-Michel Le Quéré, Sophie Guilois-Dubois, Pascal Poupard, Claudia Castillo Fraire, et al.. Apple juices: How to increase the polyphenol diet while keeping the taste quality for consumers?. 3rd Fruit & Vegetable Processing Symposium 2020, Nov 2020, Avignon, France. ⟨hal-03326107⟩



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