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Global, regional, and national consumption of animal-source foods between 1990 and 2018: findings from the Global Dietary Database

Victoria Miller 1 Julia Reedy 1 Frederick Cudhea 1 Jianyi Zhang 1 Peilin Shi 2 Josh Erndt-Marino 1 Jennifer Coates 1 Renata Micha 3 Patrick Webb 1 Dariush Mozaffarian 4 Pamela Abbott Morteza Abdollahi Parvin Abedi Suhad Abumweis Linda Adair Mohannad Al Nsour Nasser Al-Daghri 5 Nawal Al-Hamad Suad Al-Hooti Sameer Al-Zenki 6 Iftikhar Alam Jemal Ali Eman Alissa Simon Anderson Karim Anzid Carukshi Arambepola Mustafa Arici Joanne Arsenault Renzo Asciak Helene Barbieri Noël Barengo Simon Barquera Murat Bas Wulf Becker Sigrid Beer-Borst Per Bergman Lajos Biró Sesikeran Boindala Pascal Bovet Debbie Bradshaw Noriklil Bi Bukhary Kanitta Bundhamcharoen Mauricio Caballero Neville Calleja Xia Cao Mario Capanzana Jan Carmikle Katia Castetbon Michelle Castro Corazon Cerdena Hsing-yi Chang Karen Charlton yu Chen Mei Chen Shashi Chiplonkar yoonsu Cho Khun-Aik Chuah Simona Costanzo Melanie Cowan Albertino Damasceno Saeed Dastgiri Stefaan de Henauw Karin Deridder Eric Ding Rivera Dommarco Rokiah Don Charmaine Duante Vesselka Duleva Samuel Duran Aguero Veena Ekbote Jalila El Ati Asmaa El Hamdouchi Tatyana El-Kour Alison Eldridge Ibrahim Elmadfa Alireza Esteghamati Zohreh Etemad Fariza Fadzil Farshad Farzadfar Anne Fernandez Dulitha Fernando Regina Fisberg Simon Forsyth Edna Gamboa-Delgado Didier Garriguet Jean-Michel Gaspoz Dorothy Gauci Marianne Geleijnse Brahmam Ginnela Giuseppe Grosso Idris Guessous Martin Gulliford Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir Wilbur Hadden Aida Hadziomeragic Christian Haerpfer Rubina Hakeem Aminul Haque Maryam Hashemian Rajkumar Hemalatha Sigrun Henjum Hristo Hinkov Zaiton Hjdaud Daniel Hoffman Beth Hopping Anahita Houshiar-Rad yao-Te Hsieh Shu-yi Hung Inge Huybrechts Nahla Hwalla Hajah Ibrahim Nayu Ikeda Daniel Illescas-Zarate Manami Inoue Chandrashekar Janakiram Ranil Jayawardena Rajesh Jeewon Nattinee Jitnarin Lars Johansson Olof Jonsdottir Ahvaz Jundishapur Ola Kally Mirnalini Kandiah Tilakavati Karupaiah Lital Keinan-Boker Roya Kelishadi Anuradha Khadilkar Cho-Il Kim Eda Koksal Jurgen Konig Liisa Korkalo Jeremy Koster Irina Kovalskys Anand Krishnan Herculina Kruger Rebecca Kuriyan-Raj Sanghui Kweon Carl Lachat yuen Lai Pulani Lanerolle Avula Laxmaiah Catherine Leclercq Meei-Shyuan Lee Hae-Jeung Lee Eva Lemming yanping Li Jaana Lindström Annie Ling Nur Il Liputo Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo Amy Luke Widjaja Lukito Elisabette Lupotto yi Ma Zaleha Mahdy Reza Malekzadeh Wan Manan Dirce Marchioni Lydia Marques Pedro Marques-Vidal yves Martin-Prével 7 Angie Mathee yasuhiro Matsumura Paramita Mazumdar Anjum Memon Gert Mensink Alexa Meyer Parvin Mirmiran Masoud Mirzaei Puneet Misra Anoop Misra Claudette Mitchell Hamid Jbj Mohamed Fatemeh Mohammadi-Nasrabadi Noushin Mohammadifard Foong Moy Abdulrahman Musaiger Elizabeth Mwaniki Jannicke Myhre Balakrishna Nagalla Androniki Naska Swee Ng Shu Ng Le Tn Ngoan Sina Noshad Angelica Ochoa Marga Ocke Jillian Odenkirk Kyungwon Oh Mariana Oleas Sonia Olivares Philippos Orfanos Johana Ortiz-Ulloa Johanna Otero Marja-Leena Ovaskainen Mohammadreza Pakseresht Cristina Palacios Pam Palmer Wen-Harn Pan Demosthenes Panagiotakos Rajendra Parajuli Myungsook Park Gulden Pekcan Stefka Petrova Noppawan Piaseu Christos Pitsavos Kalpagam Polasa Luz Posada Farhad Pourfarzi Alan Preston Ingrid Rached Ali Rahbar Colin Rehm Almut Richter Leanne Riley Benoit Salanave Luz Sánchez-Romero Nizal Sarrafzadegan Norie Sawada Makiko Sekiyama Rusidah Selamat Khadijah Shamsuddin Zalilah Shariff Sangita Sharma Abla Sibai Harri Sinkko Isabelle Sioen Ivan Sisa Sheila Skeaff Laufey Steingrimsdottir Tor Strand Milton Suarez-Ortegon Sumathi Swaminathan Gillian Swan Elzbieta Sygnowska Maria Szabo Lucjan Szponar Ilse Tan-Khouw Heli Tapanainen Reema Tayyem Bemnet Tedla Alison Tedstone Robert Templeton Celine Termote Anastasia Thanopoulou Holmfridur Thorgeirsdottir Inga Thorsdottir Dimitrios Trichopoulos Antonia Trichopoulou Shoichiro Tsugane Aida Turrini Coline van Oosterhout Erkki Vartiainen J Lennert Veerman Suvi Virtanen Peter Vollenweider Marieke Vossenaar Indu Waidyatilaka Anna Waskiewicz Eveline Waterham Lothar Wieler Tizita Wondwossen Suh Wu Roseyati yaakub Mabel yap Safiah yusof Sahar Zaghloul Gábor Zajkás Maria Zapata Khairul Zarina Fatemeh Zohoori Micha Phd 1 Webb Phd 1 
Abstract : Background: Diet is a major modifiable risk factor for human health and overall consumption patterns affect planetary health. We aimed to quantify global, regional, and national consumption levels of animal-source foods (ASF) to inform intervention, surveillance, and policy priorities. Methods: Individual-level dietary surveys across 185 countries conducted between 1990 and 2018 were identified, obtained, standardised, and assessed among children and adults, jointly stratified by age, sex, education level, and rural versus urban residence. We included 499 discrete surveys (91·2% nationally or subnationally representative) with data for ASF (unprocessed red meat, processed meat, eggs, seafood, milk, cheese, and yoghurt), comprising 3·8 million individuals from 134 countries representing 95·2% of the world population in 2018. We used Bayesian hierarchical models to account for differences in survey methods and representativeness, time trends, and input data and modelling uncertainty, with five-fold cross-validation. Findings: In 2018, mean global intake per person of unprocessed red meat was 51 g/day (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 48–54; region-specific range 7–114 g/day); 17 countries (23·9% of the world's population) had mean intakes of at least one serving (100 g) per day. Global mean intake of processed meat was 17 g/day (95% UI 15–21 g/day; region-specific range 3–54 g/day); seafood, 28 g/day (27–30 g/day; 12–44 g/day); eggs, 21 g/day (18–24 g/day; 6–35 g/day); milk 88 g/day (84–93 g/day; 45–185 g/day); cheese, 8 g/day (8–10 g/day; 1–34 g/day); and yoghurt, 20 g/day (17–23 g/day; 7–84 g/day). Mean national intakes were at least one serving per day for processed meat (≥50 g/day) in countries representing 6·9% of the global population; for cheese (≥42 g/day) in 2·3%; for eggs (≥55 g/day) in 0·7%; for milk (≥245 g/day) in 0·3%; for seafood (≥100 g/day) in 0·8%; and for yoghurt (≥245 g/day) in less than 0·1%. Among the 25 most populous countries in 2018, total ASF intake was highest in Russia (5·8 servings per day), Germany (3·8 servings per day), and the UK (3·7 servings per day), and lowest in Tanzania (0·9 servings per day) and India (0·7 servings per day). Global and regional intakes of ASF were generally similar by sex. Compared with children, adults generally consumed more unprocessed red meat, seafood and cheese, and less milk; energy-adjusted intakes of other ASF were more similar. Globally, ASF intakes (servings per week) were higher among more-educated versus less-educated adults, with greatest global differences for milk (0·79), eggs (0·47), unprocessed red meat (0·42), cheese (0·28), seafood (0·28), yoghurt (0·22), and processed meat (0·21). This was also true for urban compared to rural areas, with largest global differences (servings per week) for unprocessed red meat (0·47), milk (0·38), and eggs (0·20). Between 1990 and 2018, global intakes (servings per week) increased for unprocessed red meat (1·20), eggs (1·18), milk (0·63), processed meat (0·50), seafood (0·44), and cheese (0·14). Interpretation: Our estimates of ASF consumption identify populations with both lower and higher than optimal intakes. These estimates can inform the targeting of intervention, surveillance, and policy priorities relevant to both human and planetary health.
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Submitted on : Friday, May 6, 2022 - 4:45:12 PM
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Victoria Miller, Julia Reedy, Frederick Cudhea, Jianyi Zhang, Peilin Shi, et al.. Global, regional, and national consumption of animal-source foods between 1990 and 2018: findings from the Global Dietary Database. Lancet Planetary Health , Elsevier, 2022, 6 (3), pp.e243-e256. ⟨10.1016/S2542-5196(21)00352-1⟩. ⟨hal-03661264⟩

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