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Journal Articles Frontiers in Endocrinology Year : 2023

Recent advances in the crosstalk between adipose, muscle and bone tissues in fish

Abstract

Control of tissue metabolism and growth involves interactions between organs, tissues, and cell types, mediated by cytokines or direct communication through cellular exchanges. Indeed, over the past decades, many peptides produced by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and bone named adipokines, myokines and osteokines respectively, have been identified in mammals playing key roles in organ/tissue development and function. Some of them are released into the circulation acting as classical hormones, but they can also act locally showing autocrine/paracrine effects. In recent years, some of these cytokines have been identified in fish models of biomedical or agronomic interest. In this review, we will present their state of the art focusing on local actions and inter-tissue effects. Adipokines reported in fish adipocytes include adiponectin and leptin among others. We will focus on their structure characteristics, gene expression, receptors, and effects, in the adipose tissue itself, mainly regulating cell differentiation and metabolism, but in muscle and bone as target tissues too. Moreover, lipid metabolites, named lipokines, can also act as signaling molecules regulating metabolic homeostasis. Regarding myokines, the best documented in fish are myostatin and the insulin-like growth factors. This review summarizes their characteristics at a molecular level, and describes both, autocrine effects and interactions with adipose tissue and bone. Nonetheless, our understanding of the functions and mechanisms of action of many of these cytokines is still largely incomplete in fish, especially concerning osteokines (i.e., osteocalcin), whose potential cross talking roles remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, by using selective breeding or genetic tools, the formation of a specific tissue can be altered, highlighting the consequences on other tissues, and allowing the identification of communication signals. The specific effects of identified cytokines validated through in vitro models or in vivo trials will be described. Moreover, future scientific fronts (i.e., exosomes) and tools (i.e., co-cultures, organoids) for a better understanding of inter-organ crosstalk in fish will also be presented. As a final consideration, further identification of molecules involved in inter-tissue communication will open new avenues of knowledge in the control of fish homeostasis, as well as possible strategies to be applied in aquaculture or biomedicine.
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hal-04029562 , version 1 (13-09-2023)

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Isabelle Hue, Encarnación Capilla, Enrique Rosell-Moll, Sara Balbuena-Pecino, Valentine Goffette, et al.. Recent advances in the crosstalk between adipose, muscle and bone tissues in fish. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 2023, 14, ⟨10.3389/fendo.2023.1155202⟩. ⟨hal-04029562⟩
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