Chemical imaging reveals environmental risk of minor tungsten and lead shotgun pellet constituents during weathering in soil - INRAE - Institut national de recherche pour l’agriculture, l’alimentation et l’environnement Access content directly
Journal Articles Science of the Total Environment Year : 2023

Chemical imaging reveals environmental risk of minor tungsten and lead shotgun pellet constituents during weathering in soil

Abstract

Tungsten (W)-based shots are considered more environmentally safe than lead (Pb)-based shots, but knowledge about the W-shot fate in the soil environment is still limited, especially in terms of minor constituents such as iron, copper, and nickel (Ni). Contaminant behaviour in soil strongly depends on pH; in turn, the corrosion of metal composites may affect the pH locally. The aim of this study was to compare Pb- and W-shot weathering dynamics in soil (silt loam, pH 6.3) and reveal the interplay of shot weathering-induced pH-changes on the mobility of elements using in situ chemical imaging (Diffusive gradients in thin films for labile elements, planar optodes for soil pH) and batch incubation experiments over time (16 months). Despite our expectation to find acidification due to W oxidation, we observed a pH increase by 0.2 units in extracted soil solutions and by 0.6 units in the soil around W-shots as Ni dissolved from the binder phase of the shot. After 10 weeks, release of labile Ni was 3-times higher compared to W despite the low Ni content in the shot (7 %, m/m). Pb-shot oxidation increased soil solution pH by 0.5 units which likely supported mobility of Pb-shot-derived antimony (Sb). Steep gradients of labile W and Pb and soil solution concentrations <0.8 μmol L−1 indicated that transfer from shot to soil was low. Contrastingly, labile Ni and Sb were found up to ~4 mm from the shot surface and in higher soil solution concentrations as suggested by the shot constitution, indicating higher mobility of minor as compared to major shot constituents. After 16 months, 36 % of total Ni were dissolved in the soil solution highlighting the environmental relevance of minor shot constituents in Pb-shot alternatives after short term weathering in soil.

Dates and versions

hal-04117609 , version 1 (05-06-2023)

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Cite

Christina Hummel, Gabrielle Daudin, Martin Gerzabek, Jakob Santner, Walter Wenzel, et al.. Chemical imaging reveals environmental risk of minor tungsten and lead shotgun pellet constituents during weathering in soil. Science of the Total Environment, 2023, 882, pp.163554. ⟨10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.163554⟩. ⟨hal-04117609⟩
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