The plant TOR kinase tunes autophagy and meristem activity for nutrient stress-induced developmental plasticity - INRAE - Institut national de recherche pour l’agriculture, l’alimentation et l’environnement Access content directly
Journal Articles The Plant cell Year : 2022

The plant TOR kinase tunes autophagy and meristem activity for nutrient stress-induced developmental plasticity

Abstract

Plants, unlike animals, respond to environmental challenges with comprehensive developmental transitions that allow them to cope with these stresses. Here we discovered that antagonistic activation of the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and shoots is essential for the nutrient deprivation-induced increase in the root-to-shoot ratio to improve foraging for mineral ions. We demonstrate that sulfate limitation-induced downregulation of TOR in shoots activates autophagy, resulting in enhanced carbon allocation to the root. The allocation of carbon to the roots is facilitated by the specific upregulation of the sucrose-transporter genes SWEET11/12 in shoots. SWEET11/12 activation is indispensable for enabling sucrose to act as a carbon source for growth and as a signal for tuning root apical meristem activity via glucose-TOR signaling. The sugar-stimulated TOR activity in the root suppresses autophagy and maintains root apical meristem activity to support root growth to enhance mining for new sulfate resources in the soil. We provide direct evidence that the organ-specific regulation of autophagy is essential for the increased root-to-shoot ratio in response to sulfur limitation. These findings uncover how sulfur limitation controls the central sensor kinase TOR to enable nutrient recycling for stress-induced morphological adaptation of the plant body.

Dates and versions

hal-04551518 , version 1 (18-04-2024)

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Yihan Dong, Rasha Aref, Ilaria Forieri, David Schiel, Wiebke Leemhuis, et al.. The plant TOR kinase tunes autophagy and meristem activity for nutrient stress-induced developmental plasticity. The Plant cell, 2022, 34 (10), pp.3814-3829. ⟨10.1093/plcell/koac201⟩. ⟨hal-04551518⟩
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