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Identification et essais de techniques biochimiques de devitalisation sur des essences ligneuses générant des risques sur les ouvrages hydrauliques

Abstract : The woody vegetation implanted on dikes and dams is well known for its many positive effects including bank stabilization, biodiversity, shade, etc. Thus, managers have left trees growing on these sites. But, recent studies show that trees and their root systems in particular may cause a range of damage such as uprising, cracking and deconstruction leading to internal risks and external erosion risks for hydraulic structures. A strengthening of the regulations for dikes and dams has obliged managers and owners to ensure the control, the technical monitoring and maintenance of their structures. However, regulations about use of plant protection products have also been reinforced, particularly with the ministerial ruling of 4 may 2017 (NOR : AGRG1632554A) forbidding the use of such products (including chemical herbicides) less than 5 m from bodies of water. These regulations in constant evolution forced a change in the usual practices thereby leaving managers confronted with an important problem of vegetation developing on their dikes and dams. Management plans must be elaborated in order to conciliate security, environmental and landscape issues. But traditional mechanical methods (logging, cutting and root extraction) are destructive for hydraulic structures and landscapes. It is urgent to set up preventive management techniques on young trees which potentially could constitute a risk when they grow.This thesis focuses on the search of alternative methods of devitalization of young trees generating risks on dikes and dams. The first part of research, divided in three Phases, consisted of screening and optimizing in greenhouse and field a range of possible and effective methods on the most predominant tree species found on hydraulic structures in France. The second part, also divided in three Phases, aimed to put in place a screening of selected methods on field test methods, and, at the same time, optimize methods according to specific parameters (trees shape, security of workers…). This second part, only conducted on black Poplars, has highlighted various constraint and revealed partially effective methods. The last Phase in field, realized only on black Poplars, has shown the effectiveness of three methods (mechanical wounding, mechanical wounding coupled with biochemical, mechanical wounding coupled with thermal) at six months after treatment. The trees treated in the field will be observed by ARBEAUSOLutions staff in 2018 to confirm the efficiency twelve months after treatment. In September 2017, two potential effective methods have been submitted for patent protection in order to enable further tests in situ and ensure protection of industrial property rights. The results of this research suggest that the effectiveness of strategies for devitalization depends on the intensity and timing of treatments to avoid that the tree responds by initiating resprouts and suckers for its survival
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Submitted on : Sunday, February 20, 2022 - 1:01:10 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03581554, version 2
  • PRODINRA : 418582

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Julie Macia. Identification et essais de techniques biochimiques de devitalisation sur des essences ligneuses générant des risques sur les ouvrages hydrauliques. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Avignon, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018AVIG0342⟩. ⟨tel-03581554v2⟩

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