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URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01303982

, Annexe 4.2 : Estimation des paramètres fixes et aléatoires du meilleur modèle de déformation ln(?max)=ln(pente) +exposant . ln(Umax)

, Annexe 4.2 : Estimation des paramètres fixes et aléatoires du meilleur modèle de déformation ln(? max )=ln(pente)+exposant . ln(U max )

, Tous les paramètres sont très significativement différents de zéro (p.value <0,001). L'écart-type des effets aléatoires est présenté à titre indicatif

, Cette thèse vise à étendre pour la première fois cette étude à l'échelle d'un peuplement forestier afin de comprendre comment des arbres adultes s'acclimatent au vent en conditions naturelles en adaptant leur croissance. Elle s'appuie sur un dispositif expérimental mis en place dans un peuplement régulier de hêtre (Fagus sylvatica) non éclairci. La vitesse du vent, les déformations longitudinales et la croissance radiale de quinze paires d'arbres de dimension et d'exposition au vent contrastées (et regroupés selon leur statut social dominant ou dominé) ont été suivies pendant une année. En contrôlant l'intensité des déformations subies, par haubanage ou à l'aide de flexions artificielles, nous avons pu démontrer que les arbres ne répondent qu'à des stimulations mécaniques provoquées par des vents suffisamment forts ayant un temps de retour supérieur à la semaine. Cette réponse se traduit par contre par une très forte augmentation de leur croissance radiale et suit une loi de mécano-perception commune à l'ensemble des arbres, quelle que soit leur taille. Nous avons ensuite étudié les conséquences de la régulation des déformations sur le dimensionnement mécanique des arbres et leur risque d'endommagement. Il s'avère que malgré des dimensions et des expositions au vent contrastées, le régime de déformation reste uniforme entre les hêtres du peuplement, en accord avec l'hypothèse d'un dimensionnement mécanique optimal souvent inférée mais jamais validée dans son mécanisme, Résumé Résumé Les tempêtes sont de loin la première cause de dégâts pour les arbres. Toutefois ceux-ci ne font pas que subir passivement le vent. Ils perçoivent leurs propres déformations sous l'effet du vent (comme de toute force externe) et y répondent en modifiant leur croissance et les propriétés mécaniques de leurs tissus