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L. Lessivage, Pour améliorer nos connaissances, ce projet a eu pour objectif de mettre en place des expérimentations au laboratoire pour permettre une quantification et une approche cinétique du lessivage. Nous avons ainsi construit trois dispositifs expérimentaux, deux étant dédiés à l'étude de l'éluviation sur sols remaniés et non perturbés, et le troisième dédié à l'étude de l'illuviation. Ces expériences associées à une approche de bilan de masse sur les bases de données pédologiques existantes nous ont permis de : (i) déterminer la nature des particules migrantes, (ii) quantifier les particules mobilisées et identifier certains processus responsables de cette mobilisation, (iii) quantifier les quantités de particules fixées au sein des horizons d'accumulation et identifier quelques processus responsables de cette fixation, (iv) déterminer l'impact de la structure du sol et des événements climatiques extrêmes sur le lessivage, (v) extrapoler ces résultats expérimentaux sur les durées de la pédogenèse et les confronter aux profils de sols décrits dans la littérature. Nos résultats montrent que : (1) les particules qui migrent ont la signature de la fraction 0-2 µm, légèrement enrichie en smectites lors des premières pluies ; (2) le transfert des particules dépend du mode de fonctionnement hydrodynamique, compris comme la translocation de particules fines dans les sols à partir d'un horizon dit éluvié vers un horizon d'accumulation dit illuvié, est considéré comme un processus pedogénétique majeur. Il a été décrit dans de nombreux sols mais reste assez peu connu

, Mots clés : Lessivage, éluviation, illuviation, processus pédogénétique, approche expérimentale

, To improve our knowledge, this project aimed at conducting laboratory experiments allowing both a quantification and a kinetic approach of lessivage. We thus designed three experiments, two to study eluviation on disturbed and undisturbed soils, and the third one to study illuviation. Theses experiments associated to a mass balance approach performed on existing pedological data allowed: (i) determing the nature of migrant particles, (ii) quantifying the mobilized particles and identifying some of the processes responsible for their mobilization, (iii) quantifying the quantities of particles retained in the illuvial horizon and identifying some of the processes responsible for this fixation, (iv) determining the impact of soil structure and extreme climatic events on lessivage. At last, we extrapolated these experimental results on the pedogenese duration and confronted them to soils profiles described in the literature. Our results show that: (1) the migrating particles have the signature of the 0-2 µm fraction, slightly enriched in smectites for the first rain events

, Keywords: Lessivage, argiluviation, eluviation, illuviation, pedogenetic process, experimental approach, Ce projet a bénéficié en partie du financement du projet AGRIPED (projet ANR 10 blanc 605

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, Orléans Cedex, vol.2