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Évaluation du potentiel insecticide et antifongique sur Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich) d’une sélection de plantes à usages ethnopharmacologiques TRAMIL

Abstract : Leaf-cutting ants are fungus-growing ants. Their geographic distribution ranges from southern United States to northern Argentina, including the West Indies. Economic losses due to these ants were estimated at several million dollars per year. The latter statement makes they are considered as one of the most important pest species of the agricultural productions (Cameron & Riggs, 1985 ; Fowler et al., 1986). In Guadeloupe, the most important invasive pest species which caused important losses in forests, gardens and field crops is ‘cassava ant’ (Acromyrmex octospinosus Reich). These huge losses required to use synthetic chemical pesticides to control these leaf-cutting ants, the consequence of which is, irreversible injuries on environment and on human health. As a matter of fact, this situation has prompted an increasing interest in alternative methods for pest control like plants with pesticide used. The plants secondary metabolites have a defensive action againts herbivores. These useful natural insecticides often come from traditional knowledge (Regnault- Roger et al., 2002). The objectives and experience of TRAMIL in traditional Caribbean knowledge and sustainable utilization of plants seem to be the best starting point to find interesting plant uses with insecticidal or fungicidal potentiality. The main objective of this thesis is to know if traditional ethnopharmacological TRAMIL uses could help to fight against this ant and against the symbiotic fungus, Leucocoprinus gongylophorus (Heim) Moeller. Methods used and presented in this work allowed to observe effects of selected plant uses on mortality and insect’s behavior. The protocols performed were selected for their potentiality to detect the different types of insecticidal effects (contact toxicity, repellent effect, toxicity by ingestion, fungicidal or fungistatic). Six traditional plant uses of five plants were tested on the ant : Mammea americana L., Nerium oleander L., Nicotiana tabacum L., Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Baill. and Trichilia pallida Sw. Five other plant uses were tested on the fungus : Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Manihot esculenta Crantz and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. The obtained results provide us with some interesting trails to fight against this pest.
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Isabelle Boulogne. Évaluation du potentiel insecticide et antifongique sur Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich) d’une sélection de plantes à usages ethnopharmacologiques TRAMIL. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. Université des Antilles et de la Guyane, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-02810978⟩



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