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Analyse du polymorphisme moléculaire de gènes de composantes de la qualité des fruits dans les ressources génétiques sauvages et cultivées de tomate ; recherche d’associations gènes/QTL

Abstract : In Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), breeding for fruit quality is difficult due to the multiplicity and complexity of the traits. QTL mapping has allowed the genetic characterization of these traits. One of the challenges is now to identify the genes underlying these QTLs. Following this aim, we used linkage-disequilibrium (LD) mapping. To avoid hazardous associations between traits and polymorphisms, the genetic structure has to be taken into account for LD mapping. Cultivated tomato showed low genetic diversity reducing mapping resolution. Cherry type tomato (S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) genome is described to be admixture between cultivated tomato and its wild ancestor. Such admixture may increase resolution of association mapping. We used a core collection focused on cherry type accessions to validate a candidate gene for a fruit locule-number QTL. We found that two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were highly associated with the trait. These two SNP evolved differently from the rest of the chromosome 2. They underwent a balanced selection which testifies a selection for fruit morphology diversity by human. Association mapping, focused on whole chromosome 2, allowed us to assess the extent of linkage disequilibrium over genetic and physical distances. Associations of polymorphisms with phenotypes were detected with structured association methods. We thus showed efficiency of genome admixture to overcome the low-resolution limitation of association mapping for an inbred crop. We validated previously identified QTLs and found associations with new QTLs and new candidate genes. An evolutionary model including bottleneck and gene flow between wild and domesticated forms of tomato is also presented.
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Nicolas Ranc. Analyse du polymorphisme moléculaire de gènes de composantes de la qualité des fruits dans les ressources génétiques sauvages et cultivées de tomate ; recherche d’associations gènes/QTL. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Montpellier, 2010. Français. ⟨tel-02824399⟩

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