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Utilisation digestive des graines protéagineuses traitées, et leur valorisation par les vaches laitières

Abstract : Importation of soybean meal from America, which are most often GMO and cause of significant deforestation, is nowadays increasingly questioned in animal feeding. For dairy cows, alternatives such as French produced proteaginous seeds (faba bean, lupin, pea) are investigated, because of their interesting protein content. However, when distributed raw to animals, their proteins are very degradable in the rumen, which penalizes their nitrogen value for ruminants. One possibility is to apply heat treatments to these seeds to protect their proteins from too high degradability in the rumen.The objective of this thesis, conducted as part of the PROLEVAL project, was to test combinations of "raw material × technological treatment" to optimize the degradation of proteaginous seeds’ proteins in the rumen, without altering their digestibility in the intestine. Following in vitro and in situ experiments, diets containing faba bean and lupin distributed raw or extruded under different conditions were tested in two in vivo experiments on dairy cows. Diets were iso-crude protein and non-limiting methionine. The first experiment compared soybean meal with faba bean or lupin, distributed raw, extruded at 140°C and extruded at 160°C. The different results showed that soybean meal could be replaced by faba bean or lupin without significantly altering the dairy performance of cows. On one hand, at 140°C, Maillard reactions led to protection of proteins from ruminal degradability compared with raw seeds, without altering the absorption of amino acids in the small intestine, leading to better milk production with faba bean. On the other hand, at 160°C, these reactions seemed to overprotect the proteins, which were less absorbed in the intestine. In the 2nd experiment, faba bean was distributed raw, extruded at 140°C in the same way as in the 1st experiment, and extruded at 140°C after a specific maturation, which aimed at improving the complexation of proteins with exogenous sugars (maturation with reducing sugars) or endogenous (released during maturation with an enzymatic cocktail). The different results confirmed that extrusion at 140°C of faba bean protects proteins from ruminal degradation. On one hand, addition of reducing sugars led to overprotection of the proteins, whose amino acids were less absorbed in the small intestine. On the other hand, addition of the enzymatic cocktail led to a level of absorption of amino acids in the small intestine similar to the one obtained with faba bean extruded at 140°C without specific maturation conditions.In addition to these experiments, a quantitative bibliographic synthesis was carried out on the use of proteaginous seeds, raw and heat-treated, in dairy cows diets. The results confirm those obtained in situ and in vivo in the context of this thesis: heat treatments protect proteins from degradation in the rumen, but the benefits of this protection on the zootechnical performance of animals require good control of the applied treatment.In conclusion, proteaginous seeds can replace soybean meal in dairy cows diets, when subjected to the appropriate heat treatment.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 25, 2021 - 11:09:14 AM
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Solveig Mendowski. Utilisation digestive des graines protéagineuses traitées, et leur valorisation par les vaches laitières. Agronomie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019CLFAC085⟩. ⟨tel-03120260v2⟩

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