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Theses

Conception d’une méthode d’évaluation des services écosystémiques : application aux étangs piscicoles

Abstract : Despite a strong anchoring in the territory and various functions, pond fish farming is a declining activity in France. The diversity of its roles raises the question of whether the framework of ecosystem services (ES) could give a better visibility of the assets of this activity. ES can be defined as "the benefits derived from ecosystems by humans". They gather the categories of supply (e.g. fish production), regulation (e.g. regulation of water quality) and cultural categories (recreational, scientific, and spiritual). The aim of this thesis is to help clarify the ecosystem services provided by ponds in France. It proposes elements on the type of services and a method to evaluate them. Ten Supply ES, twenty ES Regulators and eleven Cultural ES were identified as possibly being provided by fish ponds. The proposed PoESIE method is based on the environmental analysis framework: Life Cycle Assessment and Emergy. It puts simultaneously the services and impacts in order to highlight any tradeoffs in the provision of benefits. This method was used on 135 French ponds grouped into five management classes: intensive, semi-intensive, semi-extensive, extensive, and recreational. Two supply ES and three regulation ES were evaluated. The main results show that intensive and semi-intensive managed ponds provide the best level of ES, and have moderate environmental impacts. Nevertheless, Emergy's indicators show that the fish production ES of these intensive systems has a poor sustainability performance. The proposed PoESIE method has shown its applicability to a slight anthropised system at the interface between the natural and the productive environment. Pond aquaculture can provide a good level of ES, mainly when ponds are managed in order to produce fish.
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Submitted on : Friday, April 30, 2021 - 3:19:10 PM
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Pierre Alexandre Willot. Conception d’une méthode d’évaluation des services écosystémiques : application aux étangs piscicoles. Sciences de l'environnement. Agrocampus Ouest Rennes (FR), 2019. Français. ⟨tel-03213692⟩

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