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The European land and inland water CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance between 2001 and 2005

Sebastiaan Luyssaert 1 Gwenaël Abril 2 Robert J. Andres 3 David Bastviken 4 Valentin Bellassen 1 Peter Bergamaschi 5 Philippe Bousquet 1, 6 Frederic Chevallier 1, 6 Philippe Ciais 1, 7 Matteo Corazza 5 Rene Dechow 8 Karlheinz Erb 9 Giuseppe Etiope 10 Audrey Fortems-Cheiney 1 Giacomo Grassi 5 Jens Hartmann 11 M. Jung 12 Juliette Lathiere 1, 13 Annalea Lohila 14 Emilio Mayorga 15 Nils Moosdorf 11 Sylvestre Njakou Djomo 16 Juliane Otto 1 Dario Papale 17 Wouter Peters 18 Philippe Peylin 1, 19 Peter A. Raymond 20 Christian Rödenbeck 21 Sanna Saarnio 22 Ernst-Detlef Schulze 23 Sophie Szopa 1, 24 Rona Thompson 1 Pieter Johannes Verkerk 25 Nicolas Vuichard 1, 19 R. Wang 26 Martin Wattenbach 27 Sönke Zaehle 21
6 SATINV - Modélisation INVerse pour les mesures atmosphériques et SATellitaires
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
7 ICOS-ATC - ICOS-ATC
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
13 MERMAID - Modelling the Earth Response to Multiple Anthropogenic Interactions and Dynamics
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
19 MOSAIC - Modélisation des Surfaces et Interfaces Continentales
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
24 CLIM - Modélisation du climat
LSCE - Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement [Gif-sur-Yvette] : DRF/LSCE
Abstract : Globally, terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed about 30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions over the period 2000–2007 and inter-hemispheric gradients indicate that a significant fraction of terrestrial carbon sequestration must be north of the Equator. We present a compilation of the CO$_2$, CO, CH$_4$ and N$_2$O balances of Europe following a dual constraint approach in which a land-based balance derived mainly from ecosystem carbon inventories and a land-based balance derived from flux measurements are compared to the atmospheric data-based balance derived from inversions constrained by measurements of atmospheric GHG (greenhouse gas) concentrations. Good agreement between the GHG balances based on fluxes (1294 ± 545 Tg C in CO$_2$-eq yr$^{−1}$), inventories (1299 ± 200 Tg C in CO$_2$-eq yr$^{−1}$) and inversions (1210 ± 405 Tg C in CO$_2$-eq yr$^{−1}$) increases our confidence that the processes underlying the European GHG budget are well understood and reasonably sampled. However, the uncertainty remains large and largely lacks formal estimates. Given that European net land to atmosphere exchanges are determined by a few dominant fluxes, the uncertainty of these key components needs to be formally estimated before efforts could be made to reduce the overall uncertainty. The net land-to-atmosphere flux is a net source for CO$_2$, CO, CH$_4$ and N$_2$O, because the anthropogenic emissions by far exceed the biogenic sink strength. The dual-constraint approach confirmed that the European biogenic sink removes as much as 205 ± 72 Tg C yr$^{−1}$ from fossil fuel burning from the atmosphere. However, This C is being sequestered in both terrestrial and inland aquatic ecosystems. If the C-cost for ecosystem management is taken into account, the net uptake of ecosystems is estimated to decrease by 45% but still indicates substantial C-sequestration. However, when the balance is extended from CO$_2$ towards the main GHGs, C-uptake by terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is offset by emissions of non-CO$_2$ GHGs. As such, the European ecosystems are unlikely to contribute to mitigating the effects of climate change.
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Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Gwenaël Abril, Robert J. Andres, David Bastviken, Valentin Bellassen, et al.. The European land and inland water CO2, CO, CH4 and N2O balance between 2001 and 2005. Biogeosciences, European Geosciences Union, 2012, 9, pp.3357-3380. ⟨10.5194/bg-9-3357-2012⟩. ⟨hal-01150807v2⟩

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