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Modeling soil processes: Review, key challenges, and new perspectives

Harry Vereecken 1, 2, * A. Schnepf 1 J. W. Hopmans 3 M. Javaux 4 D. Or 5 D. O. T. Roose 6 J. Vanderborght 1, 2 M. H. Young 7 W. Amelung 1, 8 M. Aitkenhead 9 S. D. Allison 10 S. Assouline 11 Philippe Baveye 12 M. Berli 13 N. Bruggemann 1 P. Finke 14 M. Flury 15 T. Gaiser 16 G. Govers 17 T. Ghezzehei 18 P. Hallett 19 H.J. Hendricks Franssen 1, 2 J. Heppell 6 R. Horn 20 J. A. Huisman 1, 2 D. Jacques 21 F. Jonard 1 S. Kollet 1, 2 Francois Lafolie 22 K. Lamorski 23 D. Leitner 24 A. Mcbratney 25 B. Minasny 25 C. Montzka 1 W. Nowak 26 Y. Pachepsky 27 J. Padarian 25 N. Romano 28 K. Roth 29 Y. Rothfuss 1 E. C. Rowe 30 A. Schwen 31 J. Simunek 32 A. Tiktak 33 J. van Dam 34 Seatm van der Zee 34, 35 H. J. Vogel 36 J. A. Vrugt 37, 38 T. Wohling 39, 40, 41 I. M. Young 42
* Corresponding author
Abstract : The remarkable complexity of soil and its importance to a wide range of ecosystem services presents major challenges to the modeling of soil processes. Although major progress in soil models has occurred in the last decades, models of soil processes remain disjointed between disciplines or ecosystem services, with considerable uncertainty remaining in the quality of predictions and several challenges that remain yet to be addressed. First, there is a need to improve exchange of knowledge and experience among the different disciplines in soil science and to reach out to other Earth science communities. Second, the community needs to develop a new generation of soil models based on a systemic approach comprising relevant physical, chemical, and biological processes to address critical knowledge gaps in our understanding of soil processes and their interactions. Overcoming these challenges will facilitate exchanges between soil modeling and climate, plant, and social science modeling communities. It will allow us to contribute to preserve and improve our assessment of ecosystem services and advance our understanding of climate-change feedback mechanisms, among others, thereby facilitating and strengthening communication among scientific disciplines and society. We review the role of modeling soil processes in quantifying key soil processes that shape ecosystem services, with a focus on provisioning and regulating services. We then identify key challenges in modeling soil processes, including the systematic incorporation of heterogeneity and uncertainty, the integration of data and models, and strategies for effective integration of knowledge on physical, chemical, and biological soil processes. We discuss how the soil modeling community could best interface with modern modeling activities in other disciplines, such as climate, ecology, and plant research, and how to weave novel observation and measurement techniques into soil models. We propose the establishment of an international soil modeling consortium to coherently advance soil modeling activities and foster communication with other Earth science disciplines. Such a consortium should promote soil modeling platforms and data repository for model development, calibration and intercomparison essential for addressing contemporary challenges.
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Harry Vereecken, A. Schnepf, J. W. Hopmans, M. Javaux, D. Or, et al.. Modeling soil processes: Review, key challenges, and new perspectives. Vadose Zone Journal, Soil science society of America - Geological society of America., 2016, 15 (5), 57 p. ⟨10.2136/vzj2015.09.0131⟩. ⟨hal-01346397⟩

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