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Le microbiote intestinal à l'ère de la métagénomique : Perspectives d'application dans la filière avicole

Abstract : Research on gut microbiota, in humans as well as in models and livestock species, has been revolutionized by the use of high throughput DNA sequencing technologies, which allowed the development of metagenomic approaches, defined as the study of all the microbial genomes constituting the intestinal microbiota. These approaches largely contributed to show to which extent the intestinal microbiota is essential to its host, with which it forms a symbiosis. It contributes to the digestion of food non digestible by host enzymes but also modulates the host metabolism, the maturation and regulation of immunity, resistance to colonization by enteric pathogens and even behavior through interactions with the brain. This theoretical knowledge is currently leading to therapeutic applications in human medicine. Similarly, we can hope to improve several traits of interest in poultry, based on the analysis or the modulation of the intestinal microbiota using a combination of tools, which for some of them are already developed (feed, probiotics, prebiotics) and could be improved. This review explains what is metagenomics, what it brings to the study of intestinal microbiota and presents on-farm applications that could emerge by taking into account this long-ignored but essential symbiont.
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  • HAL Id : hal-01608192, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 402718

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Fanny Calenge, Lilian Leloutre, Pascale Quéré, Philippe Velge, Irène Gabriel, et al.. Le microbiote intestinal à l'ère de la métagénomique : Perspectives d'application dans la filière avicole. 12. Journées de la Recherche Avicole et Palmipèdes à Foie Gras, Apr 2017, Tours, France. 1222 p. ⟨hal-01608192⟩

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