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Assessment of liver fibrosis by transient elastography (Fibroscan((R))) in patients with A1AT deficiency

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is a common genetic condition which predisposes to emphysema and liver disorders. It is estimated that 10-15% of homozygous individuals for the Z allele (PiZZ) may develop liver fibrosis. The optimal modalities to detect liver disease in PiZZ adult patients need to be defined. The aim of this prospective study was to perform a systematic non-invasive evaluation of the liver fibrosis by elastometry using Fibroscan((R)) in a cohort of A1ATD patients with emphysema. METHODS: Patients followed in our respiratory unit were enrolled in this prospective study and underwent on the same day a physical examination, a biochemical profiling, an abdominal ultrasound (US) and a Fibroscan((R)). RESULTS: Twenty-nine PiZZ adults (19 male) were included. Median age was 50.4 yrs (21.5-67.2). Median serum A1AT level was 0.20 g/L (0.15-0.33). Liver Function Tests (LFT) were not normal in 2 patients and US was abnormal in 6 patients. Two patients had both abdnormal LFT and US. Fibroscan((R)) was technically feasible in 28/29 (97%) patients. Median liver stiffness was 4.5 kPa (2.8-32.8), and was \\textgreater 7.2 kPa in 5/28 (18%) and \\textgreater 14 kPa in 2/28 (7%) patients. Liver stiffness was increased in 2/2 (100%) patients with abnormal LFT and US, in 1/4 (25%) with abnormal LFT or US and in 2/22 (10%) patients with normal LFT and US. CONCLUSIONS: Fibroscan((R)) is an easy and repeatable tool which can be used in PiZZ patients to screen for the presence of significant liver fibrosis and to identify patients at higher risk to develop liver complications in the future and who may benefit from a closer surveillance.
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 21, 2021 - 9:29:51 PM
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C. Chapuis-Cellier, A. Lachaux, Jean-François Mornex, O. Guillaud, J. Dumortier, et al.. Assessment of liver fibrosis by transient elastography (Fibroscan((R))) in patients with A1AT deficiency. Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Elsevier, 2019, 43 (1), pp.77-81. ⟨10.1016/j.clinre.2018.08.016⟩. ⟨hal-02191902⟩



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