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Effects of a phosphorus amendment and the pH of water used for watering on the mobility and phytoavailability of Cd, Pb and Zn in highly contaminated kitchen garden soils

Abstract : Studies on two lead and zinc smelters in Northern France (Metaleurop Nord and Umicore) showed that the level of metallic contamination of kitchen garden soils is higher than the agricultural soils located in the same environment. This results most particularly from cropping practices and the addition of various products. Due to the physical and chemical parameters of these soils, the behaviour and transfer of pollutants towards various plants (grass, trees, and vegetables) may be perceptibly different than what is observed on agricultural soils. For a better understanding of pollutant behaviour in kitchen garden topsoils, the Cd, Pb and Zn was fractionated using the SM&T protocol and various extracting solutions (CaCl(2), acetic acid, and citric acid) to evaluate their mobility in two highly contaminated soils chosen in the area affected by the past atmospheric emissions of the two smelters. In addition, agricultural topsoil was sampled in a non-massively contaminated area and was therefore chosen as the control soil. The three soils were amended with a mixture of hydroxyapatite (HA) and diammonium phosphate (DAP). At 6 months, extracting procedures were carried out to evaluate the effects of the amendment on the mobility of Cd, Pb and Zn. This step was then supplemented by an evaluation of the impact of the amendment on the phytoavailability of pollutants, which was determined in plant uptake studies with ryegrass (Lolium perenne L) by considering only the pollutant concentrations in their shoots. Two experiments were carried out. In the first one, unamended and amended soils and ryegrass were watered with distilled water (pH = 7). In the second one, osmosed water (pH = 5.5) was used to evaluate the effects of the acid water-phosphate amendment system on the mobility and phytoavailability of Cd, Pb and Zn. Six months after the start of the experiments, the selective extractions showed that the effectiveness of the amendment studied depended on the element, the soil and the water's pH. Reductions of metal eluted from the contaminated soils were 1.5-37.9% for Cd, and 9.1-80.9% for Pb. Application of P amendment to the combination of osmosed water was generally the most effective for immobilising Cd and Pb elution. In contrast, the mixture of HA and DAP was ineffective for reducing Zn elution. The plant-fresh biomass yield was significantly (p < 0.05) increased by the combination of P amendment and distilled water, whereas a reduction of biomass was recorded with the combined amendment and osmosed water. Addition of P amendment generally reduced Pb uptake in ryegrass shoots (1-47%), while both Cd and Zn were increased by 17.9-79% and 0.45-100%, respectively.
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Christophe Waterlot, Christelle Pruvot, Henri Ciesielski, Francis Douay. Effects of a phosphorus amendment and the pH of water used for watering on the mobility and phytoavailability of Cd, Pb and Zn in highly contaminated kitchen garden soils. Ecological Engineering, Elsevier, 2011, 37 (7), pp.1081-1093. ⟨10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.09.001⟩. ⟨hal-02652320⟩



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