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La réforme foncière de 1998 en Côte d’Ivoire à la lumière de l’histoire des dispositifs de sécurisation des droits coutumiers. Une économie politique de la question des transferts de droits entre autochtones et «étrangers» en Côte d’Ivoire forestière

Abstract : The recent 1998 land reform in Côte d’Ivoire, yet to be implemented, aims to acknowledge and entitle the customary rights, in a context of land conflicts between locals and migrant cocoa farmers in the forest belt of the country. The legal change seems to be extremely innovative regarding the former legislation and its colonial legacy, which was based on a very centralized titling system. The paper suggests an alternative political economy-based analysis of the so-called innovative dimension of the law. Historically, the key stake of the customary land rights policies since the colonial period, including the recent law, was not so much to make the customary rights more secure, but to enforce the power of the national elite over land transfers between autochthons and migrants, particularly in the western pioneer front of the Ivorian forest belt. The main conclusions are the following ones: 1) The recent law does not depart from this trend. 2) However, the recent law departs from the historical trend according to which more favourable positions were given to the strangers. 3) However, the 1998 law does not completely innovate. Basically, it resumes the provisions of the1955 and 1956 colonial decrees, which were also implemented in order to cope with acute economic, social and political tensions, and which have been buried after the independence. 4) However, the “legal production” is not sufficient to enforce political elite’s preferences. It is a political and clientelistic locally centred action that is decisive. 5) In this perspective, making the customary land rights more secure is depending less on the legal technical aspect than on the political dimension inherent to public policy. The “social working” of the law matters as much as the contents of the law. The rebounds during the drawing up of the recent law underline that the provisions and rationale of the law echo back the main and antagonistic components of political agrarian history of Côte d’Ivoire, specially the state regulation of the customary social institution of “tutorat”. The issue at stake in the implementation of the law is the local anchorage of the state authority and legitimacy. 6) Finally, one is tempted to think that the more urgent question is : What to do with the 1998 law ?
Mots-clés : DROITS COUTUMIERS
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Conference papers
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https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02756333
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Submitted on : Wednesday, June 3, 2020 - 10:51:27 PM
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  • HAL Id : hal-02756333, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 9393

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Jean-Pierre Chauveau. La réforme foncière de 1998 en Côte d’Ivoire à la lumière de l’histoire des dispositifs de sécurisation des droits coutumiers. Une économie politique de la question des transferts de droits entre autochtones et «étrangers» en Côte d’Ivoire forestière. Colloque international : Les frontières de la question foncière : enchâssement social des droits et politiques publiques, May 2006, Montpellier, France. ⟨hal-02756333⟩

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