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Influence de l’alimentation hyperlipidique hypercholestérolémique sur l’expression génique embryonnaire et le développement de maladies à long terme : etudes sur le modèle lapin

Abstract : The prevalence of human health problems associated with high-fat diets continues to rise, as does the number of such problems known to be associated with this diet. Disruption of the fetal environment induces in progeny a greater susceptibility to developing diseases in adulthood (DOHad: Developmental Origins of Health and Disease). The objective of the work for this thesis was to assess in rabbits the consequences of a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet on embryonic and fetal development and on the onset of metabolic disorders in the long term.We fed rabbits ad libitum with a high-cholesterol (0.2%) and high-fat (8%) (HH) diet or a control (C) diet, starting at the age of 10 (experiment 1) or 18 weeks (age at which reproduction began, experiment 2).The litters were balanced at birth, and crossings were performed to differentiate the effect of the mother's food during gestation and during lactation. Accordingly, rabbits born to HH mothers were nursed by C (HH-C group) or HH (HH-HH) mothers and those born to C mothers were nursed either by C (C-C) or HH (C-HH) mothers. During experiment 1, ultrasound clearly showed significant intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) beginning at 9 days of gestation in the HH group (P<0.05). At birth, these rabbits weighed significantly less than their C counterparts (P<0.05). Because of their rapid weight catch-up, the significant difference had disappeared at weaning. All the rabbits thereafter received control food distributed ad libitum. At D176, there was no difference in weight between the HH-HH and HH-C groups but the animals in both these groups were significantly heavier than those in the C-C and C-HH groups (P<0.05). Moreover, blood pressure was higher in the HH-HH group than in any of the other groups (P<0.05). These physiological effects were not observed during experiment 2. Because the physiological effects were observed only when the diet began before gestation, we hypothesized that the early maternal environment been modified, a change that resulted in disruption of embryo development with long-term consequences. We then used a specially designed chip to study gene expression at the maternal to embryonic transition. Transcriptomic analysis suggested that some transcripts were present in different quantities. We showed with qRT-PCR that the HH diet induced a transient augmentation in the quantity of adipophilin transcripts (present at D2 but not at D5.5). The immunohistochemical analysis on D5.5 showed a higher quantity of lipid droplets localized near the nucleus of embryos from mothers fed with the HH diet than in embryos of control mothers. These results illustrate the importance of nutrition before and during pregnancy in the determination of in utero and postnatal growth as well as in the development of metabolic diseases over the long term. Maternal nutrition before conception can engender modifications in gene expression at the moment of the maternal to embryonic transition.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 18, 2012 - 12:07:14 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 21, 2022 - 3:56:20 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00718829, version 2
  • PRODINRA : 317108

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Olivier Picone. Influence de l’alimentation hyperlipidique hypercholestérolémique sur l’expression génique embryonnaire et le développement de maladies à long terme : etudes sur le modèle lapin. Biologie du développement. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PA11T025⟩. ⟨tel-00718829v2⟩

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