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Etude de l'influence de l'hydrodynamique sur le transfert des produits phytosanitaires dans les fossés agricoles. Approches expérimentale et numérique

Abstract : (trad auto)The objective of the study presented is to better understand the influence of hydrodynamics on the transfer of plant protection products during flow in agricultural ditches. Four parameters were studied in particular: (i) the rate of surface runoff; (ii) submergence, defined as the average ratio between water height and bed form height; (iii) bed form; and (iv) the degree of water saturation of the bed before contamination by plant protection products. The influence of these parameters was studied under semi-conducted conditions by setting up experiments in experimental channels at œuvre, at the bottom of which was fixed for each experiment a standard substrate consisting of an assembly of hemp fibres used to simplify the approach of a relatively complex and heterogeneous natural system (taking into account the many substrates encountered in the bed of natural ditches: grasses, dead leaves, decomposing vegetation, straw, sediments, etc.). The hemp fibres were selected after a preliminary laboratory study to compare the adsorption and desorption possibilities of the selected plant protection products on various fibres commonly used in the geotextile industry (jute, flax, hemp, polyamide, polypropylene and polyester). Experiments in the experimental channel were carried out in such a way as to test the specific influence of the parameters studied. Comparison of the different experiments indicates that an increase in the rate of surface runoff increases the amount of plant protection products transferred from the surface runoff to the bed, as well as the kinetics of this transfer. The same is true when we increase submergence, or when we move from a geometry of small "dune" shapes to a geometry of large "niche" shapes. Finally, the fact that the bed is saturated with water at the beginning of the experiment greatly reduces the transfer of the water slide to the bed. It is also observed that the influence of each parameter seems to be interdependent. In view of the time and cost of these experiments, a model was selected from the literature, coded and used to support and complete the interpretation of the experimental data"
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  • HAL Id : tel-02592162, version 1
  • IRSTEA : PUB00026918

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O. Boutron. Etude de l'influence de l'hydrodynamique sur le transfert des produits phytosanitaires dans les fossés agricoles. Approches expérimentale et numérique. Sciences de l'environnement. Thèse, spécialité "chimie de l'environnement", université Claude Bernard, Lyon I, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-02592162⟩

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