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Couplage des processus hydrologiques reliant parcelles agricoles drainées, collecteurs enterrés et émissaire à surface libre : intégration à l'échelle du bassin versant

Abstract : During high flood events, the discharge of artificial sub-surface drainage system could be seen as a possible cause of inundation. However, experimental monitoring during flood events showed that several internal processes within drainage network are atypical in regard to their ideal design. These processes include network outlet submersion sub-surface pipe overpressure. The main objective of this Ph.D is to increase current knowledge on such atypical processes and to show, through experimentation and modeling, how their relationship (interaction between different media and spatial interactions) influence the hydrological behavior of artificially drained catchments. A field experiment carried out in at Goins (included in the Orgeval catchment, Seine-et-Marne, France) showed that different cases can be distinguished, depending on pipes network configuration. Some of them demonstrated a very low influence on inundation; whereas, others could have a stronger impact, even for low discharges. These cases would result in significantly limiting drainage discharges and modifying water table flows. Drain pressurization did not allow a normal water table drawdown. The modeling strategy consisted in taking into account the various flow processes in the water table and in the drainage network, and the interactions between these media, by introducing appropriate boundary conditions. The first interaction was between the outlet of buried pipe network and the open ditch. The second interaction was between water table and buried drains which could be either under free-water surface (normal behavior) or pressurized (influenced behavior) flow conditions. During this study, a model of water table (D2D) was developed with specific conditions allow to simulate drainage flows under the previously mentioned different situations. The water table model was coupled with a network model based on the one-dimensional equations of Saint-Venant (Elixir). The coupled model was calibrated and validated using experimental data. Its application showed that drains pressurization led to a temporary storage of infiltrated water into the soil profile. During this phase, soil acted as a buffer. The rise of the water table to the surface also allowed surface storage and runoff transfer. The coupled model was then applied on a hypothetical drained catchment to test the impact of the drainage design on its behavior. Scenarios with a network drainage system sized according to the rule of design, undersized and oversized were tested. Results show that undersized network reduces significantly the peak flow at the outlet, without disturbing significantly the time and depth of water table drawdown, two important parameters in agricultural practices.
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H. Henine. Couplage des processus hydrologiques reliant parcelles agricoles drainées, collecteurs enterrés et émissaire à surface libre : intégration à l'échelle du bassin versant. Sciences de l'environnement. Doctorat Hydrologie Science de l'Eau, Université Paris VI, 2010. Français. ⟨tel-02594610⟩

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