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Développement d'une modélisation du devenir de pesticides à l'échelle d'un versant au sein d'une plateforme hydrologique, prise en compte de la macroporosité

Abstract : The aim of my thesis is to develop a spatial scale modeling of a catchment, to better reflect the main pathways of pesticides in agricultural lands. We are looking to adopt a simplified approach, yet it allows to represent the existing discontinuities (plots, ditches, embankments ... etc). Indeed, we wish to quantify the mechanisms of transfer of pesticides taking into account the influence of landscape features (patches, ditches, grass strips ... etc) on the partition of water transfers and pesticides in surface and subsurface. It relies for this development on the acquired data on the experimental watershed Morcille (69), which serve to provide orders of magnitude and a framework to test the relevance of business developments. A literature review on the processes involved and the existing models led to the choice of hydrological modeling framework CMF, developed at the University of Giessen (Kraft, 2012). CMF allows for object oriented modeling of a hydrologic system (soil column, slope, watershed etc.) and offers a wide variety of physical equations for the representation of hydrological processes. The work is conducted in three steps, the first involves assessing the behavior of CMF and validating its response via the comparison initially via a 1D model following a comparison with Hydrus1D. Secondly, we conducted 2D simulations comparing with the Cathy model based on the work of Sulis et al. (2010) and Hydrus2D (Simunek et al., 1999 & Simunek et al., 2001) on a hillslope inspired from the experimental slope of Morcille. The second step is to take account of preferential flow in certain types of structured soil, seems necessary for better representation of the processes. The representation of the preferential transfer of pesticides through macropores to water resources is still a research challenge. The dual permeability approach (DP) contains selected developing the infiltration of a new function in the macropores. Our DP model also contains two alternative exchange functions matrix-macropores; the first one is proportional to the difference of the water contents of the two compartments of the soil (Philip, 1968). The second exchange function is a diffusing wave based on the approach outlined by van Genuchten (1993). The last part of the thesis consists in the modeling of solutes successively following two approaches: single dual porosity and permeability, considering the convective transport of solutes and a linear adsorption. The validation of our modeling approach is conducted by comparing with the Hydrus1D / 2D simulations.
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Submitted on : Monday, November 30, 2015 - 11:32:09 AM
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Karima Djabelkhir. Développement d'une modélisation du devenir de pesticides à l'échelle d'un versant au sein d'une plateforme hydrologique, prise en compte de la macroporosité. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAU012⟩. ⟨tel-02602333v2⟩

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