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Habilitation à diriger des recherches

Organisation de la chromatine et transcription au cours du développement embryonnaire précoce des mammifères

Abstract : During my career, my research initially focused on comparing chromosomes from different mammalian species using banding and fluorescence hybridization techniques. This information allowed me to clarify the phylogenetic relationships between these taxa and to discuss the species barrier. Then, still by classical and molecular cytogenetics methods, I studied the impact of the presence of a balanced chromosomal abnormality on the segregation of chromosomes during male or female meiosis. In particular, I was able to assess the percentage of aneuploid spermatozoa and oocytes in cattle carrier of the 1/29 translocation. My current research aims to understand the epigenetic and molecular mechanisms involved in two essential steps of early embryonic development: embryonic genome activation and the transition from totipotency to pluripotency in mammals (mouse, rabbit, cattle). In this context, I am interested in the links between the organization of chromatin and the regulation of the transcription of sequences that compose it. To this end, I directed the development of approaches that allow single-cell analyzes of the organization of chromatin (DNA and histones) and the localization of transcripts (RNA) while maintaining the three-dimensional structure of the nucleus of embryos (protein immunolabeling combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization). The major satellite sequences specific of pericentromeric heterochromatin have a relaxed spatial organization and are strongly transcribed before the embryonic genome activation and then aggregate and are transcribed very little thereafter. Conversely, I was able to show that ribosomal gene sequences are in an aggregated state and are not transcribed before genome activation, and are in more and more dispersed state when they are transcribed. So, the spatial organization (relaxed - aggregated) seems correlated with the (active - inactive) transcription state of these sequences between the 1-cell stage and the morula stage in mice.
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Habilitation à diriger des recherches
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Submitted on : Friday, June 5, 2020 - 2:25:23 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, August 5, 2021 - 3:53:24 AM


  • HAL Id : tel-02787775, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 415820



Amélie Bonnet-Garnier. Organisation de la chromatine et transcription au cours du développement embryonnaire précoce des mammifères. Biologie du développement. Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, 2017. ⟨tel-02787775⟩



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