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Habilitation à diriger des recherches

Comprendre la réponse adaptative de populations d’arbres aux variations climatiques : modélisation des processus éco-évolutifs à des échelles locales

Abstract : Understanding how and how fast populations adapt to their environment is a major issue of evolutionary ecology, which is currently gaining a renewed interest in the context of climate change (CC). Phenotypic variation in life history traits, through which adaptation acts, results both from genetic variation between individuals and environmental variation in space or time. Forest trees are generally considered to have good adaptation abilities, because of their high levels of genetic diversity, their large population sizes, the strong gene flow between populations, and the high plasticity of their adaptive traits. However, the rhythm of observed and predicted CC, much higher than that of past climatic oscillations, raises the issue of how fast tree populations can respond. On these topics, the originality of my research relies on estimating "real time" eco-evolutionary processes contributing to adaptation, using an inter-disciplinary approach, and combining experimental and modeling approaches. I first developed innovative methods based on genetic markers to characterize plant mating system and gene flow by pollen and seed across a generation, and reveal their sensitivity to various environmental and anthropogenic factors in different populations of trees. I also used these methods in combination with quantitative genetic and ecophysiology approaches to measure the available genetic variability and the selection due to the abiotic environment on functional traits involved in climate response in beech populations along an altitudinal gradient. The significant adaptive potential of beech populations highlighted by this approach is corroborated by other experimental approaches, which reveal a small but significant adaptive genetic differentiation between populations separated by ~ 1km, both in terms of functional traits and candidate genes involved in these traits. Finally, I develop mechanistic simulation models to integrate eco-physiological, demographic and genetic processes, understand their effects and interactions, and predict future dynamics of trees population in response to CC
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  • PRODINRA : 307501

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Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio. Comprendre la réponse adaptative de populations d’arbres aux variations climatiques : modélisation des processus éco-évolutifs à des échelles locales. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Université Montpellier 2 (Sciences et Techniques), 2014. ⟨tel-02796395⟩

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