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Theses

Identification de marqueurs précoces de la gestation dans les cellules immunitaires circulantes chez les ruminants

Abstract : In cattle farming, reproductive performance is closely linked to farm profitability. The early identification of non-pregnant females, using pregnancy diagnosis tests, would allow rapid re-insemination of the animals, thus shortening the interbreeding interval. Ideally, pregnancy detection would be performed prior to the return to oestrous, namely at the time of implantation, which is not possible using current state-of-the-art pregnancy diagnosis techniques. At this early stage of pregnancy, the conceptus produces a ruminant-specific antiluteolytic signal, the interferon tau, which is responsible for the maternal pregnancy recognition. This interferon is critical in the communication between conceptus and maternal organism. The expression of numerous genes has been reported to be regulated by the interferons, in the endometrium and in blood leucocytes of ruminants, at the time of implantation. Recent technical advances for functional analysis of the genome have provided new opportunities for the use of these biological markers in pregnancy diagnosis. The main purpose of this work was to identify non-invasive, reliable and early pregnancy diagnostic markers in immune circulating cells, along with the characterisation of the local and systemic responses of the maternal organism to pregnancy. In order to identify new candidate genes, we performed a transcriptome analysis of pregnant and non-pregnant peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which we combined to a transcriptome analysis of the caroncular endometrium and the lymph nodes that specifically drain the uterus. For practical and cost-effectiveness reasons, these samples were collected in sheep. Based on the results of the transcriptome analysis, we selected, among the differentially expressed genes (DEG), a set of candidate genes in order to develop an early pregnancy diagnosis test initially in ewes and in cows in a second step. Expression of these genes was assessed using real time qPCR. Based on the expression levels of these candidate genes, pregnancy diagnosis tests were performed on different sets of animals: an experimental set of ewes, an experimental set of cows and finally, on a set of ewes from commercial herds. Five candidate genes were identified and evaluated: CXCL10, STAT1, MX1, MX2 and ISG15. Diagnosis tests displayed reliable results in the experimental sets of animals but failed to discriminate pregnancy in the set of farm animals. In this group, we observed high variations in interferon stimulated genes (ISG) expression levels highlighting the low specificity of ISG based pregnancy diagnosis tests performed in farm on heterogeneous batch of animals. To understand this lack of specificity, a simultaneous transcriptome analysis of blood leucocytes, lymph nodes and caroncular endometrium revealed respectively 118, 17 and 2823 DEG. Very few DEG were noticed in the lymph nodes. But if 78% of the DEG in blood leucocytes were found in the endometrium as well, only 3% of the DEG in the endometrium were shared with blood cells. Data mining analysis of the lists of DEG showed a strong pregnancy associated response in both blood leucocytes and the endometrium, an interferon response type, related to the implication of the interferon tau. However, this transcriptomic signature, identified in both biological tissues, is not pregnancy specific as it is frequently associated with pathogen agents. Finally, this work has enabled to highlight the slight correlation between the local (endometrium) and the peripheral (blood leucocytes) response during early pregnancy. But this work has also pointed out that the transcriptomic signature related to pregnancy, an interferon response type, is not pregnancy-specific. This lack of specificity is due to the unreliability of ISG based pregnancy diagnosis tests. Further investigations are needed to identify alternative pregnancy markers, independent of the interferon tau.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 5, 2020 - 7:55:12 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, April 21, 2022 - 3:58:25 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-02800760, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 382091

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Vincent Mauffré. Identification de marqueurs précoces de la gestation dans les cellules immunitaires circulantes chez les ruminants. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. AgroParisTech, 2016. Français. ⟨tel-02800760⟩

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