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Modélisation hydrologique distribuée des écoulements surface-souterrain à l’échelle d’un bassin versant bananier en milieu tropical volcanique (Guadeloupe, France)

Abstract : In the French West Indies (FWI), limited resources supply on island and farming with extensive uses of pesticides have damaged water resources. In environments under intensive banana production, water pollution can be of particular concern, with regards to the use of chlordecone, an insecticide to control the banana weevil. Understanding the hydrological behaviour of a catchment is a challenge in assessing the exposure of the ecosystem to pollutions and in predicting the long-term contamination dynamics. This thesis aimed at developing a model to simulate de surface and underground hydrological processes at the catchment scale on volcanic deposits in a humid tropical area covered by banana plantations in Guadeloupe. First, we developed an original water budget model at the plot scale, adapted to the banana canopy. It takes into account the high rainfall redistribution by banana cover and simulates the effects of modified rainfall intensities and within-plot heterogeneities on the water balance components. The sensitivity analysis showed that rainfall redistribution promotes surface runoff and percolation, in accordance with the field observations, but influences little or only temporarily the average field evapotranspiration and soil moisture. The model calibration tested on experimental data indicated improved runoff production performances compared to a model without rainfall redistribution. Secondly, the Féfé experimental catchment (17.8 ha) was studied with a linked iterative modelling approach (of MHYDAS and MODFLOW) that includes surface and underground hydrological processes. Tested against a year of outlet discharge and water table depth measurements, the linked modelling approach seems appropriate. However, the main limit of this approach was that it does not consider the transfer through the unsaturated zone when simulating the aquifers' recharge. The analysis of the results and of the differences between measured and simulated variables supported the hypothesis, from experimental analyses, that: the surface runoff is mainly Hortonian, groundwater flow is the main contributor to runoff at the catchment outlet. However, there was still uncertainty concerning the main processes during wet periods. Various hypotheses were suggested and should be investigated in future studies. This work represents a first step towards the evaluation of the major flow paths and contamination dynamics of pesticides on volcanic deposits in a humid tropical area covered by banana plantations.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 5, 2020 - 11:06:11 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02804083, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 253423

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Lai Ting Pak. Modélisation hydrologique distribuée des écoulements surface-souterrain à l’échelle d’un bassin versant bananier en milieu tropical volcanique (Guadeloupe, France). Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. Institut National d'Etudes Supérieures Agronomiques de Montpellier, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-02804083⟩

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