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Contribution à la modélisation déterministe spatialisée de l'érosion hydrique des sols à l'échelle des petits bassins versants cultivés

Abstract : Anthropogenic activity associated with intensive agricultural production is often the origin of an acceleration in soil erosion processes, such that the rate of erosion will exceed the rate of soil formation. In Europe and the world, water erosion af- fects all types of landscapes to different degrees. Water erosion models may provide helpful information for the development and application of land management practices in catchments with soil and water conservation concerns. The objective of this work was to reflect on and then critically analyse the problem of water erosion modelling from different points of view: conceptually, model exploration and model parameter- isation. From this reflection, and after a literature review, which focused on two of the main problems identified with present-day erosion models, namely model parame- terisation and sedimentological connectivity, we have developed a physically based and distributed water erosion model, able to provide dynamic information about soil loss and sediment transport within small agricultural catchments during rainfall events. The model takes into account the effects of land management practices on sediment transport using a distributed GIS parameterisation. The model was calibrated and validated for a Mediterranean catchment, using an automatic and multi-scale calibra- tion procedure. Another result from this work was the development of a sensitivity analysis framework to provide an exploratory analysis of distributed erosion models at different space and time scales. This framework has been applied to four water erosion models (MHYDAS-Erosion, STREAM, MESALES and PESERA). Results have shown a similarity in behaviour of the four erosion models with regards to input parameter variations.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02823756, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 222508

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Silvio José Gumière. Contribution à la modélisation déterministe spatialisée de l'érosion hydrique des sols à l'échelle des petits bassins versants cultivés. Sciences agricoles. Institut National d'Etudes Supérieures Agronomiques de Montpellier, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-02823756⟩

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