An inventory of adjuvants used for vaccination in horses: the past, the present and the future - Veterinary Research Access content directly
Journal Articles Veterinary Research Year : 2023

An inventory of adjuvants used for vaccination in horses: the past, the present and the future

Abstract

Abstract Vaccination is one of the most widely used strategies to protect horses against pathogens. However, available equine vaccines often have limitations, as they do not always provide effective, long-term protection and booster injections are often required. In addition, research efforts are needed to develop effective vaccines against emerging equine pathogens. In this review, we provide an inventory of approved adjuvants for equine vaccines worldwide, and discuss their composition and mode of action when available. A wide range of adjuvants are used in marketed vaccines for horses, the main families being aluminium salts, emulsions, polymers, saponins and ISCOMs. We also present veterinary adjuvants that are already used for vaccination in other species and are currently evaluated in horses to improve equine vaccination and to meet the expected level of protection against pathogens in the equine industry. Finally, we discuss new adjuvants such as liposomes, polylactic acid polymers, inulin, poly-ε-caprolactone nanoparticles and co-polymers that are in development. Our objective is to help professionals in the horse industry understand the composition of marketed equine vaccines in a context of mistrust towards vaccines. Besides, this review provides researchers with a list of adjuvants, either approved or at least evaluated in horses, that could be used either alone or in combination to develop new vaccines.
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Origin : Publication funded by an institution
licence : CC BY - Attribution

Dates and versions

hal-04031032 , version 1 (16-03-2023)

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Flora Carnet, Laure Perrin-Cocon, Romain Paillot, Vincent Lotteau, Stéphane Pronost, et al.. An inventory of adjuvants used for vaccination in horses: the past, the present and the future. Veterinary Research, 2023, 54 (1), pp.18. ⟨10.1186/s13567-023-01151-3⟩. ⟨hal-04031032⟩
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