Sex and fetal genome influence gene expression in pig endometrium at the end of gestation - Livestock Phenotyping for Sustainable Agro-ecological Systems Access content directly
Journal Articles BMC Genomics Year : 2024

Sex and fetal genome influence gene expression in pig endometrium at the end of gestation

Abstract

Background A fine balance of feto-maternal resource allocation is required to support pregnancy, which depends on interactions between maternal and fetal genetic potential, maternal nutrition and environment, endometrial and placental functions. In particular, some imprinted genes have a role in regulating maternal-fetal nutrient exchange, but few have been documented in the endometrium. The aim of this study is to describe the expression of 42 genes, with parental expression, in the endometrium comparing two extreme breeds: Large White (LW); Meishan (MS) with contrasting neonatal mortality and maturity at two days of gestation (D90-D110). We investigated their potential contribution to fetal maturation exploring genes-fetal phenotypes relationships. Last, we hypothesized that the fetal genome and sex influence their endometrial expression. For this purpose, pure and reciprocally crossbred fetuses were produced using LW and MS breeds. Thus, in the same uterus, endometrial samples were associated with its purebred or crossbred fetuses. Results Among the 22 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 14 DEGs were differentially regulated between the two days of gestation. More gestational changes were described in LW (11 DEGs) than in MS (2 DEGs). Nine DEGs were differentially regulated between the two extreme breeds, highlighting differences in the regulation of endometrial angiogenesis, nutrient transport and energy metabolism. We identified DEGs that showed high correlations with indicators of fetal maturation, such as ponderal index at D90 and fetal blood fructose level and placental weight at D110. We pointed out for the first time the influence of fetal sex and genome on endometrial expression at D90, highlighting AMPD3, CITED1 and H19 genes. We demonstrated that fetal sex affects the expression of five imprinted genes in LW endometrium. Fetal genome influenced the expression of four genes in LW endometrium but not in MS endometrium. Interestingly, both fetal sex and fetal genome interact to influence endometrial gene expression. Conclusions These data provide evidence for some sexual dimorphism in the pregnant endometrium and for the contribution of the fetal genome to feto-maternal interactions at the end of gestation. They suggest that the paternal genome may contribute significantly to piglet survival, especially in crossbreeding production systems.
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hal-04564296 , version 1 (30-04-2024)

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Agnes Bonnet, Lisa Bluy, Laure Gress, Laurianne Canario, Laure Ravon, et al.. Sex and fetal genome influence gene expression in pig endometrium at the end of gestation. BMC Genomics, 2024, 25 (303), ⟨10.1186/s12864-024-10144-1⟩. ⟨hal-04564296⟩
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