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Transition agroécologique des productions végétales en Guyane : Quel dispositif pour assurer la multi-performance et la résilience des systèmes agricoles ?

Abstract : French Guiana is a hotspot of biological diversity. This biodiversity is also hosting numerous pests that weaken plant production, already subject to strong soil fertility constraints. Like many other regions of the world, Guyana is confronted with the questioning of public policies governing agricultural development guidelines. The evolution of legal rules in the field of agriculture and health, particularly those recommended by the Ecophyto Plan, the demographic change (4 to 8% according to the regions) and the extremely rapid social development of this territory impose new ways of producing, more sustainable and safer. Meeting growing food challenges, producing ecosystem services, stimulating a socio-economic dynamic that creates jobs, these are the challenges that agricultural stakeholders must now face together, in the context of an inclusive and integrated agroecological transition in the Guyanese territory. In this perspective, a precise diagnosis of the brakes and levers is a prerequisite to accompany the development of the various production systems, as well as conventional (based on market gardening and fruit production) and traditional (based on food crops). There is currently no real consensual strategic framework between the various actors of agriculture and more generally of the food system to help remove these brakes of a very varied nature and intensities: means of production, access to financing, technical advice, existence and structuring of sectors for diversified products, etc. The aim of this article is to show how the agroecological transition is a way forward for the sustainable development of all farming systems in French Guiana, and to propose a strategic R&D framework to support this transition. To do so, the authors analyze the characteristics of Guyanese agriculture, the brakes and levers to its development in a first part. In a second part, a retrospective analysis of the agricultural research and development projects carried out since the 1970s is presented, to bring elements of reflection on possible paths.
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Harry Ozier-Lafontaine, Marie-Béatrice Galan, Y. Reinette, Sandrine Gelin, P. Hernandez, et al.. Transition agroécologique des productions végétales en Guyane : Quel dispositif pour assurer la multi-performance et la résilience des systèmes agricoles ?. Innovations Agronomiques, 2018, 64, pp.113-132. ⟨10.15454/1.5408028469930225E12⟩. ⟨hal-02629231⟩

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