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Vers des systèmes de grande culture moins dépendants des énergies fossiles

Abstract : In this paper, we study how cropping systems could be adapted in the aim of reducing the use of fossil energy. We first identified the agronomical techniques able to contribute to this target, and then analysed three experimental devices : (i) a factorial experiment allowing to assess the benefits linked to the introduction of legume crops, at the scale of the cropping plan (species mixture) ; (ii) a system experiment targeting the reduction of fossil energy use on the whole cropping system, while reaching good environmental impacts and maintaining a high yield level; (iii) several experiences of cropping system design, involving various practices, in varying conditions of market and pedo-climate. At the scale of the crop management plan, for annual crops, the consumption of fossil energy from cereal-legume intercrops for each ton of biomass was decreased from one third in average compared to the consumption of pure legume crops of pure fertilised grasses; for multi-year crops, non-fertilised mixtures have similar energetic performances than alfalfa, for each ton of biomass produced, and their consumption is two to four times lower than for pure grasses, according to the species and the fertilisation level. At the cropping system level, the assessment of the cropping system designed in the aim of reducing fossil energy use allows to save one third of the energy, yet with a yield decrease on some crops. Finally, the design workshops of innovative cropping systems, with farmers, showed that it is possible to reach systems with robust simulated performances, while taking into account some specific constraints or wishes from the farmers.
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  • HAL Id : hal-02631001, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 405176

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Frédérique Angevin, Caroline Colnenne-David, Marie-Helene Jeuffroy, Elise Pelzer, Thierry Doré. Vers des systèmes de grande culture moins dépendants des énergies fossiles. Agronomie, Environnement & Sociétés, Association Française d'Agronomie (Afa), 2016, 6 (1), pp.65-76. ⟨hal-02631001⟩

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