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The Medicago genome provides insight into the evolution of rhizobial symbioses

Nevin D. Young 1, * Frederic Debellé 2, 3 Giles E. D. Oldroyd 4 Rene Geurts 5 Steven Cannon 6, 7 Michael K. Udvardi 8 Vagner A. Benedito 9 Klaus F. X. Mayer 10 Jerome Gouzy 2, 11 Heiko Schoof 12 Yves van de Peer 13 Sebastian Proost 13 Douglas R. Cook 14 Blake C. Meyers 15 Manuel Spannagl 10 Foo Cheung 16 Stéphane de Mita 17, 5 Vivek Krishnakumar 16 Heidrun Gundlach 10 Shiguo Zhou 18 Joann Mudge 19 Arvind K. Bharti 19 Jeremy D. Murray 20, 8 Marina A. Naoumkina 8 Benjamin Rosen 14 Kevin A. T. Silverstein 1 Haibao Tang 16 Stephane Rombauts 13 Patrick X. Zhao 8 Peng Zhou 1 Valérie Barbe 21 Philippe Bardou 2, 3 Mickael Bechner 18 Arnaud Bellec 22 Anne Berger 21 Helene Berges 22 Shelby Bidwell 16 Ton Bisseling 5, 23 Nathalie Choisne 21 Arnaud Couloux 21 Roxanne Denny 1 Shweta Deshpande 24 Xinbin Dai 8 Jeff J. Doyle 25 Anne-Marie Dudez 2, 3 Andrew D. Farmer 19 Stéphanie Fouteau 21 Carolien Franken 5 Chrystel Gibelin 2, 3 John Gish 14 Steven Goldstein 18 Alvaro J. Gonzalez 15 Pamela J. Green 15 Asis Hallab 26 Marijke Hartog 27 Axin Hua 24 Sean Humphray 28 Dong-Hoon Jeong 15 Yi Jing 24 Anika Jöcker 26 Steve M. Kenton 24 Dong-Jin Kim 14, 29 Kathrin Klee 26 Hongshing Lai 24 Chunting Lang 5 Shaoping Lin 24 Simone L. Macmil 24 Ghislaine Magdelenat 21 Lucy Matthews 28 Jamison Mccorrison 16 Erin L. Monaghan 16 Jeong-Hwan Mun 30, 31 Fares Z. Najar 24 Christine Nicholson 28 Céline Noirot 32 Majesta O'Bleness 24 Charles R. Paule 1 Julie Poulain 21 Florent Prion 2, 3 Baifang Qin 24 Chunmei Qu 24 Ernest F. Retzel 19 Claire Riddle 28 Erika Sallet 2, 3 Sylvie Samain 21 Nicolas Samson 2, 3 Iryna Sanders 24 Olivier Saurat 2, 3 Claude Scarpelli 21 Thomas Schiex 32 Béatrice Ségurens 21 Andrew Severin 7 D. Janine Sherrier 15 Ruihua Shi 24 Sarah Sims 28 Susan R. Singer 33 Senjuti Sinharov 8 Lieven Sterck 13 Agnès Viollet 21 Bing-Bing Wang 1 Keqin Wang 24 Mingyi Wang Xiaohong Wang 1 Jens Warfsmann 26 Jean Weissenbach 13 Doug D. White 24 Jim D. White 24 Graham B. Wiley Patrick Wincker 21 Yanbo Xing 24 Limei Yang 24 Ziyun Yao 24 Fu Ying 24 Jixian Zhai 15 Liping Zhou 24 Antoine Zuber 2, 3 Jean Denarié 2, 3 Richard A. Dixon 8 Gregory D. Mary 19 David C. Schwartz Jane Rogers Francis Quétier 21 Christopher D. Town 16 Bruce A. Roe 24
Abstract : Legumes (Fabaceae or Leguminosae) are unique among cultivated plants for their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobial bacteria, a process that takes place in a specialized structure known as the nodule. Legumes belong to one of the two main groups of eurosids, the Fabidae, which includes most species capable of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation1. Legumes comprise several evolutionary lineages derived from a common ancestor 60 million years ago (Myr ago). Papilionoids are the largest clade, dating nearly to the origin of legumes and containing most cultivated species2. Medicago truncatula is a long-established model for the study of legume biology. Here we describe the draft sequence of the M. truncatula euchromatin based on a recently completed BAC assembly supplemented with Illumina shotgun sequence, together capturing ~94% of all M. truncatula genes. A whole-genome duplication (WGD) approximately 58 Myr ago had a major role in shaping the M. truncatula genome and thereby contributed to the evolution of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. Subsequent to the WGD, the M. truncatula genome experienced higher levels of rearrangement than two other sequenced legumes, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus. M. truncatula is a close relative of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a widely cultivated crop with limited genomics tools and complex autotetraploid genetics. As such, the M. truncatula genome sequence provides significant opportunities to expand alfalfa’s genomic toolbox.
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Nevin D. Young, Frederic Debellé, Giles E. D. Oldroyd, Rene Geurts, Steven Cannon, et al.. The Medicago genome provides insight into the evolution of rhizobial symbioses. Nature, Nature Publishing Group, 2011, 480 (7378), pp.520-524. ⟨10.1038/nature10625⟩. ⟨hal-02652790⟩

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