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A dietary combination of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids is more efficient than single supplementations in the prevention of retinal damage induced by elevation of intraocular pressure in rats

Abstract : Background To evaluate the effect of a dietary combination of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) compared to single PUFA supplementations on the outcome of a substantial elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in rats. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were fed for 6 months with either a control diet, a diet enriched with omega-3 PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), a diet enriched with omega-6 PUFAs (γ-linolenic acid, GLA) or a diet enriched with both omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs (EPA + DHA and GLA). After 3 months of feeding, elevation of IOP was induced by photocoagulation of the episcleral veins, limbus and trabecular meshwork using a 532-nm laser. IOP and scotopic electroretinograms (ERGs) were monitored after the induction of IOP elevation until the end of the nutritional supplementation. Retinal morphometry and GFAP immunohistochemistry were performed 3 months after laser photocoagulation. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were quantified using retrograde labelling. Results A significant rise in IOP was observed in the laser-treated eyes. PUFA supplementation did not influence the time course of IOP in the laser-treated eyes. Three months after laser photocoagulation, the activation of glial cells observed in the laser-treated eyes was significantly lower in animals fed with the EPA + DHA + GLA diet when compared to those fed the control diet, while single supplementations with either EPA + DHA or GLA were not effective. The same protective effect of the EPA + DHA + GLA combination was observed on retinal structures in the laser-treated eyes. However, PUFA supplementation did not influence either ERG b-wave amplitude or the RGC loss in the laser-treated eyes. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a 6-month supplementation with a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs is more effective than single supplementations, since the EPA + DHA + GLA dietary combination prevented retinal cell structure and decreased glial cell activation induced by the elevation of IOP in rats.
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Coralie Schnebelen, Bruno Pasquis, Manuel Salinas-Navarro, Corinne Joffre, Catherine Creuzot Garcher, et al.. A dietary combination of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids is more efficient than single supplementations in the prevention of retinal damage induced by elevation of intraocular pressure in rats. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, Springer Verlag, 2009, 247 (9), pp.1191-1203. ⟨10.1007/s00417-009-1094-6⟩. ⟨hal-02666334⟩

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