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Evolution of resistance in Culex pipiens: Allele replacement and changing environment

Abstract : Fixation of adaptive mutations in populations is often constrained by pleiotropic fitness costs. The evolutionary pathways that compensate such fitness disadvantages are either the occurrence of modifier genes or replacement of the adaptive allele by less costly ones. In this context, 23 years of evolution of insecticide resistance genes in the mosquito Culex pipiens from southern France are analyzed. The aim of this study is to answer the following points. Is there a fitness cost associated with these resistance genes in natural populations? Does evolution proceed through allele replacement or through selection of modifiers? And finally, how do environmental changes affect the evolution of resistance genes? Samples from the same transect, crossing the boundary between an insecticide-treated and a nontreated area, are analyzed. Clinal analyses indicate a variable fitness cost among the resistance genes and show that allele replacement has been the primary mechanism of resistance evolution in this area. It is also shown that replacement was probably due to environmental changes corresponding to modification in pesticide-treatment intensity.
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Thomas Guillemaud, Thomas Lenormand, Denis Bourguet, Christine Chevillon, Nicole Pasteur, et al.. Evolution of resistance in Culex pipiens: Allele replacement and changing environment. Evolution - International Journal of Organic Evolution, Wiley, 1998, 52 (2), pp.443-453. ⟨10.1111/j.1558-5646.1998.tb01644.x⟩. ⟨hal-02696960⟩

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