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Relationship of Weather Types on the Seasonal and Spatial Variability of Rainfall, Runoff, and Sediment Yield in the Western Mediterranean Basin

D. Pena-Angulo 1 E. Nadal-Romero 1 J.C. González-Hidalgo 2 J. Albaladejo 3 V. Andreu 4 H. Bahri 5 S. Bernal 6 M. Biddoccu 7 R. Bienes 8 J. Campo 4 M.A. Campo-Bescós 9 A. Canatario-Duarte 10 y. Canton 11 J. Casali 9 V. Castillo 12 E. Cavallo 7 A. Cerda 13 P. Cid 14 N. Cortesi 15 G. Desir 16 E. Diaz-Pereira 12 T. Espigares 17 J. Estrany 18 J. Farguell 19 M. Fernandez-Raga 20 C.S. Ferreira 21 V. Ferro 22 F. Gallart 23 R. Gimenez 9 E. Gimeno 4 J.A. Gómez 24 A. Gomez-Gutierrez 25 H. Gomez-Macpherson 24 O. Gonzalez-Pelayo 26 O. Kairis 27 G.P. Karatzas 28 S. Keesstra 29 S. Klotz 30 C. Kosmas 27 N. Lana-Renault 31 T. Lasanta 32 J. Latron 33 R. Lazaro 34 yves Le Bissonnais 35 Caroline Le Bouteiller 30 F. Licciardello 36 J.A. López-Tarazón 37, 38 A. Lucia 39 V.M. Marín-Moreno 40 C. Marin M.J. Marques 41 J. Martinez-Fernandez 42 M. Martinez-Mena 12 L. Mateos 24 N. Mathys 30 Luis Merino-Martín 43, 44 M. Moreno-de Las Heras 33 N. Moustakas 27 J.M. Nicolau 2 V. Pampalone 45 Damien Raclot 46 M.L. Rodríguez-Blanco 47 J. Rodrigo-Comino 48 A. Romero-Diaz 49 J.D. Ruiz-Sinoga 50 J.L. Rubio 4 S. Schnabel 25 J.M. Senciales-González 50 A. Sole-Benet 34 E.V. Taguas 40 M.T. Taboada-Castro 51 M.M. Taboada-Castro 51 F. Todisco 52 X. Ubeda 53 E.A. Varouchakis 28 L. Wittenberg 54 A. Zabaleta 55 M. Zorn 56 
Abstract : Rainfall is the key factor to understand soil erosion processes, mechanisms, and rates. Most research was conducted to determine rainfall characteristics and their relationship with soil erosion (erosivity) but there is little information about how atmospheric patterns control soil losses, and this is important to enable sustainable environmental planning and risk prevention. We investigated the temporal and spatial variability of the relationships of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield with atmospheric patterns (weather types, WTs) in the western Mediterranean basin. For this purpose, we analyzed a large database of rainfall events collected between 1985 and 2015 in 46 experimental plots and catchments with the aim to: (i) evaluate seasonal differences in the contribution of rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield produced by the WTs; and (ii) to analyze the seasonal efficiency of the different WTs (relation frequency and magnitude) related to rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield. The results indicate two different temporal patterns: the first weather type exhibits (during the cold period: autumn and winter) westerly flows that produce the highest rainfall, runoff, and sediment yield values throughout the territory; the second weather type exhibits easterly flows that predominate during the warm period (spring and summer) and it is located on the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. However, the cyclonic situations present high frequency throughout the whole year with a large influence extended around the western Mediterranean basin. Contrary, the anticyclonic situations, despite of its high frequency, do not contribute significantly to the total rainfall, runoff, and sediment (showing the lowest efficiency) because of atmospheric stability that currently characterize this atmospheric pattern. Our approach helps to better understand the relationship of WTs on the seasonal and spatial variability of rainfall, runoff and sediment yield with a regional scale based on the large dataset and number of soil erosion experimental stations
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D. Pena-Angulo, E. Nadal-Romero, J.C. González-Hidalgo, J. Albaladejo, V. Andreu, et al.. Relationship of Weather Types on the Seasonal and Spatial Variability of Rainfall, Runoff, and Sediment Yield in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Atmosphere, MDPI 2020, 11 (6), pp.609. ⟨10.3390/atmos11060609⟩. ⟨hal-02893421⟩

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