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Journal Articles Pathogens Year : 2022

Productive Replication of HIV-1 but Not SIVmac in Small Ruminant Cells

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Abstract

Animal lentiviruses (LVs) have been proven to have the capacity to cross the species barrier, to adapt in the new hosts, and to increase their pathogenesis, therefore leading to the emergence of threatening diseases. However, their potential for widespread diffusion is limited by restrictive cellular factors that block viral replication in the cells of many species. In previous studies, we demonstrated that the restriction of CAEV infection of sheep choroid plexus cells was due to aberrant post-translation cleavage of the CAEV Env gp170 precursor. Later, we showed that the lack of specific receptor(s) for caprine encephalitis arthritis virus (CAEV) on the surface of human cells was the only barrier to their infection. Here, we examined whether small ruminant (SR) cells can support the replication of primate LVs. Three sheep and goat cell lines were inoculated with cell-free HIV-1 and SIVmac viral stocks or transfected with infectious molecular clone DNAs of these viruses. The two recombinant lentiviral clones contained the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter sequence. Infection was detected by GFP expression in target cells, and the infectious virus produced and released in the culture medium of treated cells was detected using the indicator TZM-bl cell line. Pseudotyped HIV-GFP and SIV-GFP with vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G) allowed the cell receptors to be overcome for virus entry to further evaluate the viral replication/restriction in SR cells. As expected, neither HIV nor SIV viruses infected any of the SR cells. In contrast, the transfection of plasmid DNAs of the infectious molecular clones of both viruses in SR cells produced high titers of infectious viruses for human indicators, but not SR cell lines. Surprisingly, SR cells inoculated with HIV-GFP/VSV-G, but not SIV-GFP/VSV-G, expressed the GFP and produced a virus that efficiently infected the human indictor, but not the SR cells. Collectively, these data provide a demonstration of the lack of replication of the SIVmac genome in SR cells, while, in contrast, there was no restriction on the replication of the IV-1 genome in these cells. However, because of the lack of functional receptors to SIVmac and HIV-1 at the surface of SR cells, there is specific lentiviral entry.
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hal-03783667 , version 1 (22-09-2022)

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Hibet Errahmane Chergui, Takfarinas Idres, Chloé Chaudesaigues, Diana Noueihed, Jean Gagnon, et al.. Productive Replication of HIV-1 but Not SIVmac in Small Ruminant Cells. Pathogens, 2022, 11 (7), pp.799. ⟨10.3390/pathogens11070799⟩. ⟨hal-03783667⟩

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