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Journal Articles Molecular Plant Pathology Year : 2022

Synchytrium endobioticum , the potato wart disease pathogen

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Abstract

Potato wart disease is considered one of the most important quarantine pests for cultivated potato and is caused by the obligate biotrophic chytrid fungus Synchytrium endobioticum. This review integrates observations from early potato wart research and recent molecular, genetic, and genomic studies of the pathogen and its host potato. Taxonomy, epidemiology, pathology, and formation of new pathotypes are discussed, and a model for molecular S. endobioticum-potato interaction is proposed. Taxonomy Currently classified as kingdom: Fungi, phylum: Chytridiomycota, class: Chytridiomycetes, order: Chytridiales, family: Synchytriaceae, genus: Synchytrium, species: Synchytrium endobioticum, there is strong molecular support for Synchytriaceae to be transferred to the order Synchytriales. Hosts and disease symptoms Solanum tuberosum is the main host for S. endobioticum but other solanaceous species have been reported as alternative hosts. It is not known if these alternative hosts play a role in the survival of the pathogen in (borders of) infested fields. Disease symptoms on potato tubers are characterized by the warty cauliflower-like malformations that are the result of cell enlargement and cell multiplication induced by the pathogen. Meristematic tissue on tubers, stolons, eyes, sprouts, and inflorescences can be infected while the potato root system seems to be immune. Pathotypes For S. endobioticum over 40 pathotypes, which are defined as groups of isolates with a similar response to a set of differential potato varieties, are described. Pathotypes 1(D1), 2(G1), 6(O1), and 18(T1) are currently regarded to be most widespread. However, with the current differential set other pathogen diversity largely remains undetected. Pathogen-host interaction A single effector has been described for S. endobioticum (AvrSen1), which is recognized by the potato Sen1 resistance gene product. This is also the first effector that has been described in Chytridiomycota, showing that in this fungal division resistance also fits the gene-for-gene concept. Although significant progress was made in the last decade in mapping wart disease resistance loci, not all resistances present in potato breeding germplasm could be identified. The use of resistant varieties plays an essential role in disease managemen
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Dates and versions

hal-03805309 , version 1 (07-10-2022)

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Bart. Vossenberg, Charlotte Prodhomme, Jack Vossen, Theo Lee. Synchytrium endobioticum , the potato wart disease pathogen. Molecular Plant Pathology, 2022, 23 (4), pp.461-474. ⟨10.1111/mpp.13183⟩. ⟨hal-03805309⟩
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