Multiple scenarios for sexual crosses in the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici on wheat residues: potential consequences for virulence gene transmission - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Journal Articles Fungal Genetics and Biology Year : 2022

Multiple scenarios for sexual crosses in the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici on wheat residues: potential consequences for virulence gene transmission

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Abstract

Little is known about the impact of host immunity on sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens. In particular, it is unclear whether crossing requires both sexual partners to infect living plant tissues. We addressed this issue in a three-year experiment investigating different scenarios of Zymoseptoria tritici crosses on wheat according to the virulence (‘vir’) or avirulence (‘avr’) of the parents against a qualitative resistance gene. Co-inoculations (‘vir × vir’, ‘avr × vir’, ‘avr × avr’) and single inoculations were performed on a cultivar carrying the resistance gene (Cellule) and a susceptible cultivar (Apache), in the greenhouse. We assessed the intensity of asexual reproduction by scoring disease severity, and the intensity of sexual reproduction by counting the ascospores discharged from wheat residues. As expected, disease severity was more intense on Cellule for ‘vir × vir’ co-inoculations than for ‘avr × vir’ co-inoculations, with no disease for ‘avr × avr’. However, all types of co-inoculation yielded sexual offspring, whether or not the parental strains caused plant symptoms. Parenthood was confirmed by genotyping (SSR markers), and the occurrence of crosses between (co-)inoculated and exogenous strains (other strains from the experiment, or from far away) was determined. We showed that symptomatic asexual infection was not required for a strain to participate in sexual reproduction, and deduced from this result that avirulent strains could be maintained asymptomatically “on” or “in” leaf tissues of plants carrying the corresponding resistant gene for long enough to reproduce sexually. In two of the three years, the intensity of sexual reproduction did not differ between the three types of co-inoculation in Cellule, suggesting that crosses involving avirulent strains are not anecdotal. We discuss the possible mechanisms explaining the maintenance of avirulence in Z. tritici populations and the potential impact of particular resistance deployments such as cultivar mixtures for limiting resistance breakdown.
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hal-03818769 , version 1 (18-10-2022)

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Carolina Orellana-Torrejon, Tiphaine Vidal, Gwilherm Gazeau, Anne-Lise Boixel, Sandrine Gélisse, et al.. Multiple scenarios for sexual crosses in the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici on wheat residues: potential consequences for virulence gene transmission. Fungal Genetics and Biology, inPress, pp.103744. ⟨10.1016/j.fgb.2022.103744⟩. ⟨hal-03818769⟩
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