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A phenomics-based dynamic model of growth and yield to simulate hundreds of maize hybrids in the diversity of European environments

Abstract : Under soil water deficit, plants limit transpiration by decreasing leaf area to save water for the end of the crop cycle. A large genetic diversity has been observed in maize for the processes involved in this response. Because of the trade-off between transpiration and photosynthesis, a high plasticity is not always beneficial because it also reduces biomass accumulation and grain yield. The genotype that maximises production in one dry environment therefore does not always perform the best in another dry environment. The aim of this thesis was to predict which combination of trait values related to leaf growth would be beneficial in the diversity of European environments. For this purpose, (i) I have shown that genetic and environmental controls differ between leaf elongation and widening, and established/tested the equations that describe these controls. (ii) I have developed a model of leaf development and expansion, with a particular attention to the parsimony for parameter number and to the possibility of measuring parameter values in phenotyping platforms. (iii) I have developed a simulation framework including 36 years of environmental conditions and management practices of 59 European fields, together with the parameterisation of 254 maize hybrids maximising the maize genetic diversity. (iv) This framework has been used to simulate the optimum crop cycle duration for each site and management practice in current and future conditions. (v) The simulation framework and the adapted cycle duration were then used to determine ideotypes of leaf growth adapted to the different environmental scenarios. Results indicate that sensitive hybrids perform better in southern Europe under rainfed conditions while less-sensitive genotypes perform better in northern Europe or in irrigated fields. However, the best combinations of parameters determined in an unconstrained phenotypic space were not available in the observed genetic diversity. Overall, this study provides elements on where and when a combination of trait values can give a comparative advantage on yield, together with the boundary of possibilities within the current genetic diversity.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02785251, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 427879

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Sébastien Lacube. A phenomics-based dynamic model of growth and yield to simulate hundreds of maize hybrids in the diversity of European environments. Vegetal Biology. Institut National d'Etudes Supérieures Agronomiques de Montpellier, 2017. English. ⟨tel-02785251⟩

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