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« Survivre » 25 ans après la chute de l'URSS : classes populaires et marchés dans les espaces ruraux ukrainiens

Abstract : Types de traductions Traduction de texte Texte source 5000 / 5000 Résultats de traduction “Survive” (viživati) is a word from the field. It designates a variety of economic practices and highlights several aspects: - the constant efforts to be made to find food, clothing and pay for housing, care or studies; - the perceived deterioration in the standard of living; - an aspiration for a better, "developed" and stable economy, that assumed in the region of origin of the investigator; - the temporary and unstable nature of the balances found on a daily basis; - a certain resentment against the state, "those who direct and decide" (pri vladi), or the employers, those who no longer pay the right value for work (robota ne cinuêtcâ). These feelings are further heightened on Ukrainian ground by the economic consequences of the war in the east of the country since 2014. In fact, inflation started to rise again, exceeding 60% in April 2015, after the period of relative stability of the 2000s and a return to normal since the effects of the international financial crisis in 2008-2009. Based on ethnographic terrain in a canton in central Ukraine, the thesis puts this impression of "survival" into perspective. Beyond the shared feeling of a generalized resourcefulness, social regularities appear, the investigation of which strives to restore the social logics, that is to say to grasp the forms of "the informal", systematically asking the following two questions: Why does such and such a person carry out such activity (paid work in migration, local salaried work, seasonal agricultural work, marketing of domestic production)? Why does such and such an activity take such and such a form (recruitments, determination of prices and remuneration, organization of work, distribution of tasks, etc.)? The thesis is based on the concepts and methods of the sociology of work and economic anthropology, combining literature specific to post-socialist spaces, especially in the English language, and the findings of recent work in the sociology of the working classes in France. The particular context of crisis, lasting economic instability and regular institutional reforms demanded particular attention to the method. Ethnography played a central role. It applied both to the observation of domestic spaces and work scenes, but also to the work of local administrations and their uses of statistical and regulatory categories. Throughout the reasoning, it sheds light on and is informed by extensive use of archives, interviews conducted with regional and national officials in the agricultural world and a statistical base (Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey) bringing together data on more than 7000 trajectories in 3000 Ukrainian households during the 2000s. The successive chapters explore various social scenes, where ordinary economic practices are organized: - "domestic space" considered both as a category of power, taken in a political history and long social, and as a real living and working space, which becomes, under certain conditions, the space for independent commercial production; - the fields of local agricultural enterprises, places of paid work, especially seasonal and manual, carried out by women; - construction sites, local or in migration, scenes of men's work, shaping their careers according to employment opportunities; - markets for agricultural products, structured by prices, product quality and ultimately the recognition of producers in the networks of market relations. Thus, research brings out various social mechanisms for regulating economic activities, beyond and beyond any legal framework. In particular, it highlights two salient aspects of this regulation. On the one hand, the organization of agricultural work in local enterprises testifies to the reproduction of hierarchical relations dating from the Soviet period, despite the changes in the property regime and in employment relations following the privatization of agricultural land. The multiple local conflicts and forms of domination, which can be found in other case studies on post-socialist spaces, justify an approach in terms of social class. On the other hand, the observation of various social scenes and their superimposition made it possible to show the role of mutual knowledge and the effects of reputations on the rankings and positions occupied by the people encountered on the labor markets or agricultural product markets. With the crises and the collapse of the wage society, workplaces and people's trajectories are structured less by institutional barriers (laws, regulations, diplomas and other certifications), than by social barriers. Local sociability, marked by the sexual division of Types de traductions Traduction de texte Texte source 1015 / 5000 Résultats de traduction u work but also through economic inequalities, then play a decisive role in the social differentiation of the scenes observed and in the opportunities for access to multiple markets. They are therefore an essential element in the reproduction and legitimization of the local social order. Through this work, this research questions the very notion of social space and the processes of unification and fragmentation of the markets that constitute it. The Ukrainian terrain, through the crisis situation it is going through and the upheavals it has known for 25 years, offers a point of comparison for a reflection on the modes of institution of economic practices that do not take executives for granted. legal or statistical and, through them, the regional and national scales of studies of economic phenomena. By basing itself on ethnography, the thesis thus attempts to make its contribution to a global sociology of social classes, attentive to the space and history of social relations.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 5, 2020 - 12:12:34 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02786491, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 448816

Citation

Pierre Deffontaines. « Survivre » 25 ans après la chute de l'URSS : classes populaires et marchés dans les espaces ruraux ukrainiens. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. Université de Bourgogne, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-02786491⟩

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