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Prévention par les acides gras alimentaires des conséquences cardiaques d'une augmentation de la pression sanguine

Abstract : Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent a major cause of mortality in developed countries. Hypertension (HTA), which affects more than 20 % of the population, is one of the most frequent and currently treated risk factor. A large part of the factors leading to HTA can be modified by the diet, and particularly by fatty acids. This study was intended to evaluate the efficiency of a dietary n-3 PUFA supplement (either as eicosapentaenoic, EPA, or as docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) in preventing the rise in blood pressure, its cardiac consequences, and the interaction with classical pharmaceutical treatment. The experiments were carried out in hypertension from 3 distinct etiologies: (1) « fructose » rats (central hypertension associated to insulin resistance); (2) Goldblatt 2K1C rats (peripheral reno-vascular hypertension); (3) SHR rats (genetic familial hypertension). The pharmaceutical treatment was adapted by the use of either an IEC (perindopril) or imidazoline receptor agonist (rilmenidine). The cardiovascular function was investigated by telemetry. In the 3 models, hypertension was associated with a reduction of cardiac n-3 PUFAs in the animals fed a control diet. This reduced n-3 PUFA status in cardiac membranes is a risk factor that was reported in diabetes but appears also in hypertension since we could observe it in 2K1C et SHR. The dietary n-3 PUFA supplement balanced the n-3 PUFA cardiac status. Both EPA and DHA prevented blood pressure increase, although this effect was etiology-dependant in the EPA group. The continuous recording of heart rate and ECG allowed the demonstration that dietary DHA is able to induce a -blocker-like effect in vivo, as already suggested by in vitro studies. DHA appears thus to prevent both hypertension and its cardiac consequences, namely rate and repolarization (through the QT). The n-3 PUFAs incorporated in the tissues did interact with pharmaceutical treatments, but only at the lower doses, which cannot allow the normalization of blood pressure. In conclusion, these results support the hypothesis that a n-3 PUFA dietary supplement is a valuable strategy in the prevention of the cardiovascular diseases associated to hypertension.
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Submitted on : Sunday, June 7, 2020 - 6:50:55 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02832146, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 362238

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Delphine Rousseau. Prévention par les acides gras alimentaires des conséquences cardiaques d'une augmentation de la pression sanguine. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Bourgogne, 2001. Français. ⟨tel-02832146⟩

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