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Analyse des peuplements ichtyologiques des plans d'eau français et perspectives de gestion piscicole

Abstract : The aim of this thesis is to make a global study of fish assemblages' structures in french natural and dam lakes, relating them to environmental and human factors. The main obstacle in setting up suitable fish management tools seems to be the lack of knowledge in water bodies fish communities. With the increase in fisheries' activities, such tools are now necessary. In order to assess the current fish management applied on french water bodies, public managers were interviewed throughout the country. It appeared that there was a great need for information on such ecosystems. It also showed the importance of fish stocking, particularly in natural lakes. Data on relative abundancy collected through scientific samplings on 98 French water bodies (55 natural lakes and 43 reservoirs) were studied using Factorial Analysis (FA). It showed a clear distinction between altitude water bodies (> 1 500 m) and lowland natural and dam lakes (< 1 500 m). For each of these water bodies groups, the community structure was related to various mesological characteristics using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). On a 45 water bodies sub-sample, fish assemblages have been compared with fish stocking data using co-inertia analysis (CoA). The results show that altitude lakes and reservoirs are mainly populated by 5 salmonids species. Such assemblages are not correlated to sites' descriptors and fish stocking mostly explains such a structure. Nowadays, in the majority of sites, fish stocking is still high. Lowland sites have higher species diversity and more varied characteristics. Their fish assemblages have a similar structure in natural and dam lakes. This ordination seems close to that pointed out in rivers (Verneaux, 1981). With some species, the distinction can be made between the two types of water bodies: stream fishes are found in reservoirs whereas stagnant water fishes are specific to natural lakes. On reservoirs only, the elaboration of a gradient, similar to the "river continuum concept" (Vannote, 1980), helps to explain a part of the assemblages structure.
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O. Pronier. Analyse des peuplements ichtyologiques des plans d'eau français et perspectives de gestion piscicole. Sciences de l'environnement. Doctorat Sciences agronomiques, INP ENSAT, Toulouse, 2000. Français. ⟨tel-02579541⟩



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