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Evolutions possibles des politiques publiques de soutien

Abstract : Public supports for agriculture and rural development remain, in France and since nearly ten years, roughly stable (approximately 0.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product). This situation, which results from the choices within the successive reforms of the Common agricultural policy (CAP), should not however mask the changes in the nature of the supports. Indeed, the direct supports for the farmers strongly progressed whereas those relating to the markets regulation decreased. Within this framework, the grassland farming systems, which remain primarily based on the use of permanent and alpine pasture by herbivores, are supported by two principal measurements registered under the rural development: the ICHN (Compensatory allowances of the Natural Handicaps) and the MAE (Agro-Environmental Measures), the main one being the PHAE (Agro-Environmental Grassland Premium) which replaced the PMSEE (Premium to the Maintenance of the Extensive Systems of Breeding, said " grass premium "). In 2005, those respectively accounted for 4.2% and 4.4% of the public support to agriculture. However National grass surfaces continue to decrease, especially in the most intensive areas, the reduction is less in the other zones where the MAE have a significant impact. A processing of the 2004 national data from the Farm accountancy data Network (FADN) shows the economic importance of the direct support related to the rural development in the formation of the income of the grassland farming systems. These systems, which gather 39% of the professional herbivorous livestock farms are penalized by a lower labour productivity, but remain effective from an economic point of view, according to the ratio "Farm Added Value/agricultural Production (including direct subsidies)". In the future, they will be particularly sensitive to the national (specially; application of the optional modulation) and Europeans arbitrations relating to the evolution of the implementation of the rural development. In order to analyze the potential effects of the reform of the CAP of 2003, a simulation was done. Because of the introduction of partial decoupling and weak opportunities of reorientation of the cattle breeding systems in mountains region, the grassland farms remaining dependent on MAE and ICHN should not be encouraged to modify their productive systems. The setting of support measures for the grassland farming systems could take several forms aiming at a remuneration, in a contractual and durable way, of the rendered environmental services, pursuant to the well-known principle supplier-paid in public economics. It could consist of the articulation: (1) of measurements of general interest intended for the largest number of the farmers going guaranteeing of the extensive use of grass surfaces; (2) of territorialized procedures limited to certain spaces located for their sensitivity and environmental richness (where the farmers are ready to engage beyond the "good usual practices" and where a local governorship is assured). In both cases, the collective organizations should be encouraged for a better environmental effectiveness. Measures should be realized by taking care of the coherence of the whole farm system, for its technical and land use management as well as in terms of work organization and economic viability. In order to limit the inherent costs of management in any contractual procedure, it is suggested, for measures with general range, to elaborate pre-adapted contracts related to configuration-types (associating types of farm functioning and types of farmlands or environment areas used), to which the farms, candidates with the contractualisation, could quickly and closely be brought closer. The territorialized procedures also could allow to take into account spaces sensitive to the not stabilized land statutes (verbal hiring, tacit authorizations of pasture). The logic of a remuneration of a hypothetical overcost or loss of earnings seems to lead to a dead end. The remuneration of the environmental services rendered by the grassland farming systems and explicitly identified seems preferable.
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Submitted on : Friday, May 15, 2020 - 2:57:38 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, January 12, 2022 - 12:42:03 PM


  • HAL Id : hal-02591252, version 1
  • IRSTEA : PUB00025266


Vincent Chatellier, Dominique Vollet, Laurent Dobremez, Etienne Josien, C. Beranger, et al.. Evolutions possibles des politiques publiques de soutien. Prairies, herbivores, territoires : quels enjeux ?, Editions Quae, pp.129-155, 2008, 978-2-7592-0117-4. ⟨hal-02591252⟩



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