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Short-, medium- and long-term metabolic responses of adult ewes submitted to nutritional and β-adrenergic challenges

Abstract : Background: In order to maintain homeostasis, ruminants submitted to alternating shortage and refeeding situations manifest switches in metabolic pathways induced by undernutrition and body reserves (BR) replenishment cycles. The objective of this experiment was to study adaptive regulatory mechanisms present during subsequent feeding transition periods and the inherent lipolytic activity of the adipose tissue in individuals with contrasted BR. Three diets containing different levels of energy were offered to 36 mature, dry, non-pregnant Mérinos d’Arles ewes in an experiment lasting 122 days. Ewes were selected with similar body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS) and were allocated into three equivalent treatments according to the plane of nutrition: normally fed (Control); underfed (Under) or overfed (Over). The BW, BCS and individual energy metabolism were monitored. At the end of the experiment, lipolytic activity of adipose tissue was studied through a ß-adrenergic challenge to the same ewes, with body conditions according to the offered diet (Normal, Leans and Fat, respectively). Results: Anabolic or catabolic responses to energy dietary manipulation were accompanied by synchronised metabolic regulation, leading to contrasting metabolic and BR profiles. Average BW and BCS were higher and lower in Over and Under ewes, respectively. The higher and lower BR variations were observed for Under and Over ewes. Higher plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were accompanied by lower insulin, leptin and glucose. Differences in leptin were consistent with the dietary energy load (Over > Control > Under). After refeeding, a rebound in BW and BCS was observed for the three groups whereas NEFA was drastically reduced in Under ewes. No differences among treatments were detected in NEFA profiles at the end of the study but lipolytic activity responses to the ßadrenergic challenge were different and coherent with the adipose tissue mass (Fat > Normal Lean) and, importantly, was also different between ewes 35 from the same group or BR status, thus evidencing diversity among individual adaptive capacities. Conclusions: The ability of ewes to quickly overcome undernutrition situations by efficiently using their BR was confirmed. There is potential for a simplified ß-adrenergic challenge protocol helping to identify differences in adaptive capacity among individuals.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 26, 2020 - 9:26:54 PM
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Eliel González García, Moutaz Alhamada, Nathalie Debus, Jean-Baptiste Menassol, Anne Tesnière, et al.. Short-, medium- and long-term metabolic responses of adult ewes submitted to nutritional and β-adrenergic challenges. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology , BioMed Central, 2019, Online, 39 p. ⟨10.1101/723965⟩. ⟨hal-02627830⟩

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