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Macronutrient composition of the diet affects the feeding-mediated down regulation of autophagy in muscle of rainbow trout (O. mykiss)

Abstract : Autophagy functions as an important catabolic mechanism by mediating the turnover of intracellular organelles and protein complexes through a lysosome dependent degradative pathway. Although the induction of autophagy by starvation has been extensively studied, we still know very little about how autophagy is regulated under normal nutritional conditions. The purpose of the present study was to characterize both in vivo and in vitro the response of the autophagy-lysosomal degradative pathway to nutrient (amino acids and carbohydrates) availability in the muscle of the carnivorous rainbow trout. We report that meal feeding is accompanied by a rapid activation of Akt, FoxO1 and the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathways and a concomitant decrease of autophagosome formation. We also show that this effect occurs only when the proportion of dietary proteins increases at the expense of carbohydrates. Concurrently, our in vitro study on primary culture of trout muscle cells demonstrates an opposite effect of amino acids and glucose on the regulation of autophagy-lysosomal pathways. More specifically, the addition of amino acids in cell culture medium inhibited the formation of autophagosomes, whereas the addition of glucose had an opposite effect. The effect of amino acids was accompanied by an activation of TOR, considered as an important regulator of autophagosomal formation. However, the mechanisms involved in the effect of glucose were independent of Akt, TOR and AMPK and remain to be determined. Together, these results demonstrated the specific role of macronutrients as well as that of their interactions in the regulation of autophagy and highlight the interest to consider the macronutrient composition of the diets in the control of this degradative pathway
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Ikram Belghit, Stéphane Panserat, Bastien Sadoul, Karine Dias, Sandrine Skiba-Cassy, et al.. Macronutrient composition of the diet affects the feeding-mediated down regulation of autophagy in muscle of rainbow trout (O. mykiss). PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2013, 8 (9), 12 p. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0074308⟩. ⟨hal-02646373⟩

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