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Organogenesis from stem cells in planta: multiple feedback loops integrating molecular and mechanical signals

Abstract : In multicellular organisms, the coordination of cell behaviors largely relies on biochemical and biophysical signals. Understanding how such signals control development is often challenging, because their distribution relies on the activity of individual cells and, in a feedback loop, on tissue behavior and geometry. This review focuses on one of the best-studied structures in biology, the shoot apical meristem (SAM). This tissue is responsible for the production of all the aerial parts of a plant. In the SAM, a population of stem cells continuously produces new cells that are incorporated in lateral organs, such as leaves, branches, and flowers. Organogenesis from stem cells involves a tight regulation of cell identity and patterning as well as large-scale morphogenetic events. The gene regulatory network controlling these processes is highly coordinated in space by various signals, such as plant hormones, peptides, intracellular mobile factors, and mechanical stresses. Many crosstalks and feedback loops interconnecting these pathways have emerged in the past 10 years. The plant hormone auxin and mechanical forces have received more attention recently and their role is more particularly detailed here. An integrated view of these signaling networks is also presented in order to help understanding how robust shape and patterning can emerge from these networks.
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Fabrice Besnard, Teva Vernoux, Olivier Hamant. Organogenesis from stem cells in planta: multiple feedback loops integrating molecular and mechanical signals. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, Springer Verlag, 2011, 68 (17), pp.2885-2906. ⟨10.1007/s00018-011-0732-4⟩. ⟨hal-02652230⟩



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