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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in reproductive tissues: from gametogenesis to parturition

Abstract : Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR alpha, PPAR beta/delta and PPAR gamma) are a family of nuclear receptors that are activated by binding of natural ligands, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids or by synthetic ligands. Synthetic molecules of the glitazone family, which bind to PPAR gamma, are currently used to treat type II diabetes and also to attenuate the secondary clinical symptoms frequently associated with insulin resistance, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PPARs are expressed in different compartments of the reproductive system (hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, uterus and testis). Conservative functions of PPARs in mammalian species could be suggested through several in vivo and in vitro studies, especially in the ovary and during placental development. Several groups have described a strong expression of PPAR gamma in ovarian granulosa cells, and glitazones modulate granulosa cell proliferation and steroidogenesis in vitro. All these recent data raise new questions about the biologic actions of PPARs in reproduction and their use in therapeutic treatments of fertility troubles such as PCOS or endometriosis. In this review, we first describe the roles of PPARs in different compartments of the reproductive axis (from male and female gametogenesis to parturition), with a focus on PPAR gamma. Secondly, we discuss the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of glitazones on PCOS. Like other 'insulin sensitizer' molecules, such as metformin, glitazones may in fact act directly on ovarian cells. Finally, we discuss the eventual actions of PPARs as mediators of environmental toxic substances for reproductive function.
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Pascal Froment, F. Gizard, D. Defever, Bart Staels, Joëlle Dupont, et al.. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in reproductive tissues: from gametogenesis to parturition. Journal of Endocrinology, BioScientifica, 2006, 189 (2), pp.199-209. ⟨hal-02663248⟩



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