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Robustesse et production durable : hypothèses physiopathologiques et moléculaires

Abstract : The hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis is the most important stress-responsive neuroendocrine system. Cortisol (or corticosterone) released by the adrenal cortices exerts a large range of effects on the metabolisms, the immune system, inflammatory processes, and brain function, for example. Large individual variations have been described in HPA axis activity, with important physiopathological consequences. In terms of animal production, higher cortisol levels have negative effects on growth rate and feed efficiency and increases the fat/lean ratio of carcasses. On the contrary, cortisol has positive effects on traits related to robustness and adaptation, such as newborn survival or tolerance to heat stress. Intense selection for lean tissue during the last decades has reduced concomitantly the activity of the corticotropic axis, with negative consequences of selection on piglet survival for instance. One strategy to improve robustness is to select animals with higher HPA axis activity. Research on the molecular mechanisms of this variability is very active. The objective is to identify markers that could be used to select animals with higher HPA axis activity, and thus improve their robustness without damaging their production potential, which is the primary selection objective in the development of "sustainable" farming.
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Pierre Mormède, Aline Foury. Robustesse et production durable : hypothèses physiopathologiques et moléculaires. Bulletin de l'Académie Vétérinaire de France, Académie vétérinaire de France, 2009, 162 (4-5), pp.335-339. ⟨hal-02665620⟩



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