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Le canard mulard : déterminisme génétique d’un hybride intergénérique

Abstract : The mule duck, an inter-generic hybrid between the Muscovy drake and the common duck, produces more than 90 % of the French "foie gras". The reciprocal hybrid (common drake x Muscovy female duck) offers no interest in animal breeding. Since the 1980's, the mule duck has been obtained by artificial insemination, with a fertility rate reaching 70 % owing to artificial insemination practised twice a week, because of the short duration of the fertile period in the crossbreeding. Thise synthesis first deals with the zoological aspects of this hybridisation (cytogenetics, mating, fertilisation and embryonic development, hybrid sterility). Then, it deals with, from a zootechnical point of view, the reproductive performances of the common duck female (laying, fertility and duration of fertility, hatchability) and the traits of the mule duck (growth, plumage colouration, behaviour, feed efficiency, body composition, force feeding, quality of the products). The aim was first to describe the specificity of the mule duck with respect to the parental species, and, when possible (the presence of the reciprocal hybrid), to interpret its performances in terms of parental genetic contributions. Another aim was to review the genetic parameters of mule traits estimated within the parental strains and the genetic correlations between purebred and crossbred performances. These parameters determine the potential of within-strain selection to improve the mule duck. At last, some elements of molecular genetics are presented (genetic markers, compared genetic maps).
Mots-clés : GENETIQUE ANIMALE
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Jean- Michel Brun, Marie-Madeleine Mialon, Christel Marie Etancelin, Roger Rouvier, Catherine Larzul. Le canard mulard : déterminisme génétique d’un hybride intergénérique. Productions animales, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 2005, 18 (5), pp.295-308. ⟨hal-02682396⟩

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