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Impacts zootechnique et socio-économique potentiels d'une éventuelle utilisation de la rtGH en salmoniculture

Abstract : Salmonids (trout and salmon) are the main pisciculture production of western Europe. Animal biotechnologies affecting salmoniculture concern three areas: genetic manipulation (triploidy to produce sterile fish), gene transfer (to produce transgenic fish resistant to infectious diseases) and recombinant peptides (recombinant vaccine against viral diseases, recombinant trout growth hormone -rtGH-). rtGH has two main biological effects: growth stimulation especially in cold water and positive impact on the adaptation of juveniles to sea water. Chronic treatment with rtGH can substantially increase the production of the main types of trout farms. However it could only really be used in high technology farms which practice water oxygenation, photoperiodic control of the spawning date and computerized fish stock management. A simulation of the effects of a single treatment by injection to prepare young salmon for transfer to the sea shows that autumn transfer of treated young salmon modifies the selling period without increasing the production. However if the farmer transfers an initial group of fish treated in the autumn and a second group of fish naturally smolted in the spring, production increases by 20% and, more importantly, the selling period is extended. The profitability of portion trout production would appear to be increased, and considering the production phase only, it does not seem that diversification towards fillet trout or the large trout would improve fish farm profitability. Although it seems that the adoption of rtGH would result in collective benefits in the long term, shared by producers and consumers, the transient phase is difficult. The difference between success and rejection is very small. The latter would lead to the reorganisation of the branch. The strategy for success would appear to involve diversification and improvements to the branch image. Even so some effects on the structure of the branch should be expected, and some producers will benefit from the surplus more than others. Taking the concept of need into account for salmon and trout farming, rtGH has potential which cannot be neglected (better use of raw materials, reduced pollution) and also risks (bad product image, overproduction, impact on the structure of the profession). If its innocuousness can be demonstrated, it should be introduceded gradually and be accompanied by measures encouraging quality (label).
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  • PRODINRA : 100069

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Gérard Maisse, Francois Bonnieux, Benoit Fauconneau, André Fauré, Yoann Gloaguen, et al.. Impacts zootechnique et socio-économique potentiels d'une éventuelle utilisation de la rtGH en salmoniculture. Productions animales, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 1993, 6 (3), pp.167-183. ⟨hal-02715113⟩

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